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Designer Diary: Automania, or Assembling a Design on the Right Paths

Kristian Amundsen Østby
Norway
Langhus
Unspecified
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Norway is a small country not far from the planet's north pole, and just outside its capital city, Oslo, live two gaming enthusiasts. One is Kenneth Minde, now a first-time-designer, and the other is Kristian Amundsen Østby, a designer with a few games already under his belt. At Spiel 2015, they will release their new game, Automania, and this is their story of how that game came to be, as told from each of the two designers' perspectives.




Kenneth:
It all began one November evening in 2014, a couple of weeks after Spiel in Essen. I was hosting my regular board gaming night, and friends were coming over to play some of the new games from Essen. One of the people attending this evening was Kristian. I didn't know him that well, but we had met in Essen a couple of times, and since he didn't live too far from me, I had invited him over to play.

Kristian was a seasoned game designer with about ten published games, best known probably for Escape, but that night he came over just to play. Specifically, we were going to play Kanban, one of the new titles from Spiel 2014, and I was really looking forward to this. I loved designer Vital Lacerda's previous games, and every new game from him is a must-buy for me.

Kanban is a heavy game about car production and comes with a monster rulebook. With him being a game designer, I was sure Kristian would enjoy complex games, and he smiled as I put the game on the table, so I was sure I had made a good choice. I was really looking forward to this. I am a huge car enthusiast.

Kristian:
I have attended Spiel every year for the past thirteen years, and each year I come home with a huge stack of new games that I try to work through in the following weeks and months. I go to Essen mostly for the games, I must admit, but also for the people — and one of the people I've met in Essen is Kenneth.

When I spoke to him at Spiel 2014, we discovered that we didn't live too far apart, so when he invited me over to his game night some weeks later, I said yes. Whenever I go to game nights with people I don't know, I am always a little worried that I might involuntarily end up in some monster game taking forever, and it would feel rude to turn down a game being suggested by the host.

Kenneth's home was very tidy and neat, and we sat down around a huge pool table in his basement. It turned out that we were going to play Kanban. I smiled politely as Kenneth — the host — put it on the table. A suggested playing time of two hours usually means four hours in real playing time. Well, I do enjoy playing games I haven't played before, and this one was also in my stack of still unplayed games from Essen. It was a game I had bought despite its theme. You see, I really hate cars.

Kenneth:
The game night went well, and everyone seemed to have a good time, even though I had won, beating Kristian by a small margin. After the game, Kristian and I had a chat about the game and its theme. I had really enjoyed the game, but some of the other players had felt it was a little too complex. At some point during the chat, I joked about how Kristian should design a game of car production, and I explained all the stuff and cool features that I would like to see in such a game.

Kristian seemed to zone while I was talking, and I didn't think he was too interested, so I had forgotten all about it when he called me on the phone after a couple of days. Apparently he didn't understand my jokes.

Kristian:
The game night at Kenneth's was nice. We played through Kanban, and honestly I felt a bit embarrassed to beat the host in a game he had been so eager to play. After the game, we sat around his pool table talking about games in general. Kenneth challenged me to make my own game of car production. He talked about assembly lines, various types of chassis, and how different models were sold in different markets, and I believe it was at this point I first started suspecting that the guy opposite me had a pathological obsession with cars.

But while he was talking, I zoned out for a second as I started thinking of a game prototype I had at home. It was a prototype about film production in which you produced films for different audiences and held screenings in different cinemas. The prototype had been put on hold as I had gotten stuck on some feature and didn't know how to proceed — but maybe it would all make sense if you produced cars? I really love when games let me be creative and make me feel that I have designed and built a creation of my own. A factory setting, with assembly lines in which you put together the parts you like, could be perfect for this. I went home and searched my drawers for the old prototype.



Old filmmaker prototype


Kenneth:
"Kenneth, I want to show you some ideas for the car game you mentioned", Kristian said. We made an appointment to meet later that week, this time at his place. Kristian's house was less tidy than I had expected. The only really orderly place was the game room in his basement. Walking into that room was like walking into the library of my dreams. Shelves upon shelves stacked full of board games.

Kristian poured a bag of cubes, tiles and other game material onto a large table. "See, I imagine we can have these intersecting assembly lines", he said. "You collect machine parts and place them on your assembly lines. When you produce a car, the car gets the features of whatever machines are along its assembly line. You then need to try to make cars that meet the demands of the markets."

The basic idea intrigued me. Kristian obviously had no knowledge of how cars were produced or worked, but the idea of intersecting assembly lines still felt right and thematic in a zany way. We played many games in succession that night. In the first games, we had only some tiles and our own assembly lines, but by the end of the night we were producing cars that were evaluated against the demands in various markets, and the cars were put on a ladder reminiscent of the ships in the final game. This was the very first version of Automania.



Producing a family car


Kristian:
Working together on a game design can be difficult, and in my experience one of the most important things to agree upon early on in the process is what type of game you are making. Are you making a light, fun, accessible game, or a more complex brain-burner? What "feel" do you want the players to get? With more than one designer, agreeing on all points can be a challenge, and I believe that's a reason why so few new games are released as co-designs.

Still, when it all goes well, co-designing a game can be rewarding. I had previously experienced that when co-designing Doodle City with Eilif Svensson, and now I experienced it again. We were both determined to make a medium-to-high complexity Eurogame, with simple rules and lots of interesting dilemmas, a game that should be an elegant and streamlined design, but still offer never-obvious decisions to the players. We wanted there to be little randomness, but without the game feeling too heavy. We wanted to keep a playful atmosphere in which players could feel like they created something.

With Kenneth having showed so much interest in and knowledge of the game's theme, I was relieved to see that he was also comfortable with keeping mechanisms in the game that weren't strict representations of reality. We were making a game, not a simulation, and our goal was to make players have fun, not to teach them about car production.

Another benefit of co-designing is that you always have someone to playtest with. Kenneth and I playtested the game intensely every week over the following months. Usually, game design is a process of trial, error, and scrapping your ideas to start all over, but with Automania, things ran surprisingly smoothly. That is a really good feeling to a game designer because it usually means that the core mechanisms in the game are robust and solid. Also, in this case, new mechanisms grew naturally from the theme, like the introduction of specialists. It all came together very naturally, which is also a good sign, because it means the theme won't feel pasted on.




Kenneth:
After a couple of months of driving my chipped Ford Mondeo over to Kristian's house, the game was nearing its final form. Kristian even dared to drive over to my place some evenings. Kristian hardly knows up from down on a driving wheel, and he handles the gearstick the same way stepmother treated Cinderella: No love, no tenderness. When I use the gearstick, it lays in my hand like a little puppy, but Kristian's driving is not supposed to be the main topic here anyway...

After a couple of months of development, it was becoming clear to both of us that we had a really good game. Everyone we introduced the game to enjoyed it. They enjoyed being able to design their own cars: fast, safe, comfortable, spacious, or whatever they preferred. But even players who had no interest in cars enjoyed the game; they enjoyed making their own factory, hiring specialists, customizing their assembly lines, deciding whether to sell for money or for victory points, and all that. Seeing friends and test players having such a good time with something I made was very rewarding.

One of the design decisions I was most satisfied with was when we merged the actions of tile-picking and car production: When you pick a tile, the choice also dictates which type of car you produce. Already on your first action, you take a tile and produce a car, and — bam! — the game is rolling. Just seconds into the game, the first car has been produced and placed on a freighter ship, on its way to the coast of either North America or Europe.



Automania in a nutshell


One year earlier, Kristian had founded his own company, Aporta Games, together with two other guys, and I was eager when Kristian suggested we would try to publish Automania through that company. You see, I have a bucket list. A list of stuff I want to do. On that list you will find a lot of ambitious things, and it looks like this:

Kenneth's bucket-list:
• Visit Australia
• Write a book
• Participate in Iron Man
• Buy a Tesla
• Solve the Rubik's 7x7x7


And all the way down at the bottom of the list, there is a point that I never expected to happen. It is, of course:

• Design a game and get it published


Kristian:
After having read Kenneth's previous diary passage insulting my supposedly "defensive driving" — a passage that felt part passive-aggressive, part oddly creepy — I started beating him a lot more in Automania and also became a much better person than him in general.

Anyway, after we had decided to try to release the design through Aporta Games, we also decided that we would try to release the game on Kickstarter. We wanted to have the game ready for Spiel 2015, so time was short. In April, I got Gjermund Bohne to start working on the illustrations. Gjermund had done the graphics for Doodle City, and we were very happy with his work back then. Both Kenneth and I wanted to have a friendly, "cartoony" style for the graphics, and Gjermund started working. For Kickstarter we knew we'd need a demonstration video, and my friend Jason Woodburn was kind enough to agree to put together a preliminary rules explanation video.

We also sent the preliminary rules to Richard "Rahdo" Hamm, who liked it enough to want to put together a playthrough video. From his video you get a good idea of what the prototype looked like at that point, and if you have read the final rules, you will also see that we have introduced a lot of changes to the game since then.

On May 1, 2015, we put Automania up on Kickstarter. Deciding on the stretch goals was hard. Very often, I find that stretch goals that add new stuff to a game doesn't improve the game. There are, of course, games that improve from extra stuff, but more often than not adding stuff just makes the game more cluttered. Coming up with new and varied tiles for a game like this would be easy, but I see it as my job as a designer to make for the best possible game experience — and if stuff improves the game, it should be in the retail version; if it doesn't, it shouldn't be in any version of the game.

However, after having put the game on Kickstarter, we both realized there was one additional feature that we did want to add: variable player powers. This is a feature both Kenneth and I like, and it can really increase the longevity of a game. So in the following two months after launching the Kickstarter campaign, we worked on balancing and fine-tuning four optional player powers. We wanted each power to feel unique, but not so strong that it would render any part of the game irrelevant to the owning player. The four powers we settled on were:

Elon, the factory with a special electrical car
Miao, the Chinese (?) factory that can copy other players' cars
Sumato, a factory with a different assembly line layout, allowing them to pimp up their cheap city cars
Opo, the company with an open plan office, giving them room to hire a lot of specialists

For the Kickstarter campaign, Gjermund had made some preliminary prototype graphics for us. When we put this on BGG, some people mentioned that the box cover graphics reminded them of a children's game. The characters did indeed have a cartoony, friendly style, but many games have this, so we thought that perhaps the yellow background color reminded people of HABA's line of children's games. On the original prototype box graphics, the general manager in the middle did also look a little too friendly, with her wide smile and pink dress, so we changed her into what can be seen on the final box image. Also, once people get past the game box and see the game board and the rest of the contents, I don't believe anyone will mistake this for a children's game.



Early sketch



Prototype cover (childish)



Final cover — mature & sophisticated


Kenneth & Kristian:
We're now in August 2015, and Kenneth claims to have gained three kilos just from the wine he has drunk during playtesting. Kristian doesn't drink, but calculated that it would amount to about eleven liters of wine and thinks that seems like a realistic estimate of Kenneth's consumption.

We also got some good news today: We will receive our Kickstarter funds after all. That's right — we had not yet received the funds from the campaign. The money was supposed to be transferred in June, but there was a problem with the money transaction, and for a while we were afraid that the money had been transferred to the wrong account and was lost forever. That would have been bad because we'd still have to ship all the Kickstarter copies, covering the costs out of our own pockets, so we slept uneasy for a while, but now everything seems to be in order.

The other great news is that Automania will be printed by the end of August, well in time for Spiel 2015. That is a good feeling because a delay in production that makes you miss the Spiel fair in Essen is the nightmare of any small publisher. It's also a good feeling to know that we have a product we are satisfied with. Automania is exactly the kind of gamers' game that we enjoy ourselves.

That said, we are now ready and eager to hear what you people think, so if you're in Essen in October, please come by booth 1-D109. Whether it is to give Automania a try, to just have a chat, to give Kristian a comforting pat on the back for his lack of driving skills, or to give Kenneth advice on how to deal with his newly acquired alcoholism, we will appreciate it!


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Thu Aug 27, 2015 7:00 am
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Designer Diary: The Making of Automobiles, or How a Design Reaches the Finish Line

David Short
United States
Tucson
Arizona
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Note about this designer diary: Chronologically, this picks up right where my Planes designer diary left off. Unlike with that diary, I kept a journal of my entire process this time. I tracked how I felt and what I did while I designed. What you read below is taken directly from that journal as it was written on the dates marked.

Any new comments I make will look like this. Hope you enjoy this glimpse into my process.


November 22, 2013
At BGG.CON 2013... I just finished another very positive meeting with AEG about my game Round Trip. They want to sign it and change its name to Planes. Obviously, this would link it to their game Trains, and naturally jokes about a third game called Automobiles began to surface. My wheels immediately started spinning...

What I don't mention here is that at that same meeting AEG started discussions about possibly opening up a contest for the best Automobiles design. They talked about fielding submissions from everyone and taking the best one. With my inside knowledge, I took it as a challenge to have my design done before they opened that contest.


Pitching Planes to AEG at BGG.CON 2013; the Automobiles conversation started almost immediately after handshakes
(Pictured: Todd Rowland and Mark Wootton)


November 24, 2013
On the plane flight home from BGG.CON, I'm brainstorming what an Automobiles game could be. My first thoughts all have to do with fusing elements and mechanisms of Planes and Trains — something with moving cubes using deck building. How about deck building but with cubes instead of cards?!

At this point, I thought this was a revolutionary concept. I had no idea that King's Pouch and Hyperborea existed, let alone that they would both release before Automobiles. Although, all three games have almost nothing in common. I love the diversity of our hobby.


December 23, 2013
My game Planes is officially signed by AEG. Also, they have confirmed that they are going to start a new line of transportation games with Trains. I'm even more excited to possibly design the third game in the series.


I sketched this during the development of Planes



January 7, 2014
So far I think there will be a board of a city with streets. The streets will have multiple lines of color (different colors) on them. The players want to accomplish tasks (like go to work, go to grocery store, go home) and they can do that by pulling out colored cubes out of their bag that match the colored lines of the streets they want to drive on. The more you drive on a street the better you get to know that area of town, which will allow you to add cubes of that color to your bag. Cube Building and Route Management game.

In hindsight, this sounds so terrible. I'm glad I didn't stick with this idea.


January 17, 2014
There will be 5 cards next to the board with 10 cubes below them. The cubes will be different colors than the colors on the board. Each of these cards will give some sort of cool power when the cube is drawn from your bag. The 5 colors of cubes will be of 5 different types of cards. There will be X amount of cards in each type. Shuffle and choose one for the game in each of the 5 types.

This is the first hint of the final game.


January 18, 2014
Each player's bag starts with X amount of action cubes and X amount of white cubes. White cubes follow a looonnng route around the edge of the board. In order to take shortcuts, players need to land on intersections. At the end of your move, you can add a colored cube that matches the space you are on. If you're at an intersection, you may choose any of those colors. This is how you add new and better cubes to your bag. Your goal in the game is to complete task cards. Task cards tell you where to go in the city. Various task cards could be dealt at the beginning of the game and perhaps more could be bought during the game.

So very terrible. I'm not sure what I was thinking.


January 23, 2014
Boards will be static but the places (building tiles) on it will be random each game. Additionally, each default road (Highways, boulevards (major roads), streets (horizontal), avenues (vertical), alleys (shortcuts)) will have several cards that have special abilities. Shuffle and place one of each type of card next to the special power cards. When you pull that cube, you can use the cube's special power on the card or use it to move. Also, perhaps there is something about rush hour and how the highways and boulevards are slower than the surface streets.

Unfortunately, I didn't change my course yet...sigh.


March 10, 2014
I haven't touched my ideas for Automobiles in a while. No new inspiration. Perhaps a more flashy theme would work better than commuting in a city. Maybe players are building supercars, production cars or concept cars?

Yes. Finally, I woke up.


April 3, 2014
Met with a friend today and we discussed my ideas for Automobiles. The best part of the discussion was the epiphany that the cube building is the hook for the game and should be exploited further. I need to design powers and actions that showcase the strengths of cube building versus deck building. The design juices are flowing again...


April 9, 2014
New idea!!! A racing game where the track has multiple lines of color with various lengths of dashes. Each dash represents your speed basically. The slower speeds will have really really short dashes, so even with many cubes you will only move a short distance. The higher speeds will have really long dashes so each cube will take you a long distance. There will be cards on the side of the board to upgrade your car to various things, like letting you pull out more cubes, or being able to recycle your cubes faster (shuffle). Various cards will have actions like turn one cube into the color of another cube. Or move as many spaces as you have white cubes in your discard pile. Or buy as many cards as you have yellow cubes in your discard pile. Also perhaps each cube is worth one dollar in order to buy new cards (move used cubes to your bag). And then perhaps there is also straight up money cubes and they're worth more obviously. Now, I'm going somewhere.


Early sketch of the set-up


May 25, 2014
I'm researching Monaco Grand Prix and the Le Mans 24 Hour Race. Good inspiration found.


May 30, 2014
As of this morning, Automobiles only existed in my head and on some notes and scribbles. It's always a thrill to watch that very first prototype come to life — ugly and raw. I'm a procrastinator and I always take forever to prototype a design. Typically, I play it over and over in my head for awhile. In this way, I feel like I have played the game several times before I ever build it. This lets me get out a lot of bugs before I waste time producing anything physical prematurely. In fact, I was still working on handwriting the cards while the first few playtesters showed up tonight. Eventually, we played the inaugural game. Nothing broke. What?! I was shocked. We played again. Still working. We played again. We were all in shock at just how well it was playing in its debut. It was doing what I wanted it to do. And most of all, it was fun. I haven't had this level of positive reception to a design this early in development since Planes. My playtesters are so excited. I couldn't be more pleased.


Early design notes


June 2, 2014
I've been playing this non-stop since I made the prototype last week. I'm still floored that it is as fun as it is this early in its development. Pushing forward with lots of optimism...


June 4, 2014
This morning I did my first virtual pitch to a publisher. I presented Automobiles to several people from AEG over Skype. We had the usual technical difficulties (specifically I was hoping to use multiple webcams on my end, but one device failed to connect); however we moved past them and everything else generally went smooth. It was certainly different pitching to a webcam versus face-to-face with a live person. I'm used to reading body language and watching where their eye focuses while I pitch. I couldn't do either of those things, so it was a challenge to know if they were keeping up with me, and understanding an element, before I moved onto the next. Nevertheless, I was pleased with what I presented and everyone at AEG said they were impressed. Their order was to press ahead...

I wanted to bring in AEG as early as possible in order to make them second guess if they should move forward with an Automobiles contest or not.


Prototype set-up for my virtual pitch to AEG


June 20, 2014
Here's my current card categories:
• Gears (3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th)
• Wear (Grey)
• Money (Yellow)
• Pit (Purple)
• Handling (Red)
• Performance (Green)
• Engines (Blue)


All the prototype cards at this early stage


July 22, 2014
Playtesting continues. I'm observing the balance of new card combos and exploring turn phase options — specifically drawing your cubes at the end of your turn instead of the beginning. This would decrease the perception of downtime since players would be able to plan their turn when it wasn't their turn.


Early playtesting notes


July 29, 2014
Incredible playtesting session. We tried out the new oval map. I was pretty excited to see what strategies emerged due to taking multiple laps around the smaller track. Unfortunately, the new track presented several challenges that I didn't expect, which forced me to make a handful of hand-drawn changes as we played. I love this stage of playtesting — it's so focused and productive. Additionally, I was hoping that this new track would both speed up the game duration, as well as give the players the increased feeling that they were racing. I failed on both efforts. But that's not a bad thing. Failures at this point are often more productive and better for the game than successes. We discussed various ways to speed up game play (draw more cubes, change the track colors, make culling easier, etc) — many options for me to consider. On a positive note, the new cards were all very fun.


More playtesting notes


July 31, 2014
Breakthrough! Most of the challenges faced from the last playtest session were alleviated today. I'm so excited. I implemented a couple of changes all focused on speeding up both the duration of the game and the exhilaration felt during the game. The changes include giving all players a Spending Allowance during set-up and increases the amount of cubes drawn per turn from 5 to 7. Today's sessions were very fun.


More playtesting notes

Check out all those exclamation points on the last line. 7 cubes indeed.


August 5, 2014
Spending Allowance continues to be both fun and beneficial to speeding up the game. However, I have been noticing that money has become too easy during the game, which has resulted in some bloated decks. These bloated decks increase the luck of the draw, while also diminishing the effect of gaining wear. I'd like to reverse both of those repercussions. Just one week left till Gen Con. Push push push...

At this point, it was relatively common for players to have ~$20 a turn to spend. Far too much freedom.


August 8, 2014
My solution to limit money has paid off big time. I removed all actions that gained you more money and created a few more deck customization actions. Consequently, the last several sessions have been ridiculously fun. Tonight, we blasted through 5 plays in under 3 hours and we all still wanted to keep playing. I think I’m ready for Gen Con...except I need to make a new prototype...sigh...

I remember this session clearly. These sort of breakthroughs on a design are a joy to watch unfold.


August 12, 2014
Trying out the new prototype, complete with more functional cards and a new track. Made some key tweaks to the new track, but overall I'm very pleased with how it runs and feels different than the oval track.


Early prototype of the Monza board



August 15, 2014
I'm at Gen Con. It's my first time, and man is it overwhelming. Despite that, I'm enjoying myself and being productive in networking and pitching to publishers. It's exciting that every time I see one of the guys from AEG, they tell me how much they are looking forward to my Automobiles pitch on Sunday.


At Gen Con 2014 with some of the members of AEG


August 17, 2014
Today is the big day. I meet with AEG to formally pitch them Automobiles. They know about the game and are very excited about it. From the communication I've had with them, the job is mine to lose. It's a good position to be in. I'm prepped as best as I can.

I sadly do not have a picture of this pitch.


August 17, 2014
I'm on the plane back home. The big pitch earlier today went good. Not amazing, but good. We met and played at their booth in the main exhibit hall. We were in their private meeting room, but it was still loud and the space was quite tight. Additionally, it was the afternoon on the last day of the con. Everyone was visibly exhausted. All that being said, the pitch and play of the game went well. They were engaged and having fun. When it was done, we discussed marketing briefly and shook hands to confirm AEG will publish it. Success!!


September 16, 2014
Confirmed that this is just about done. I tweaked the blocking rules because they continue to be difficult to explain. I made them more intuitive, while at the same time increasing their importance. Other than that, nothing was altered and a fun time was had by all! Oh, and AEG has informed me that art is starting!


More playtesting...


September 30, 2014
Ridiculously fun sessions. Finishes are tight, cars are unique, and plays are enjoyable. Still tweaking cards, especially the ones that grant extra cube draws (i.e. Nitro, Crew Chief).


Evolution of the pit card: First prototype, early prototype, late prototype, and final design


December 16, 2014
Still tweaking cards and values as polishing development progresses. Additionally, the art continues to pour in. Specifically, the boards, the cover and the logo. I'm so stoked with how incredible everything looks.


Final Daytona Beach board


January 21, 2015
Playtesting continues to insure everything is on point. At the same time, I've finally taken a step toward writing a final rulebook. Such a painstaking process. Additionally, I have designed new "Those Aren't Pillows" promos for each game in the Destination Fun series. Playtesting for these has started and they are very fun. I can't wait to get these out into the wild. Lastly, art is really coming along. The main boards are almost final, as are the player boards, and the card backs. Gorgeous.


"Those aren't pillows." Haha.


January 23, 2015
Officially added an "Alternative Turn" called a Pit Stop to the game play. This allows a player to pass their turn in favor of removing all of the Wear from their Active area. I have toyed with this idea from time to time from the start, but it's now officially embraced. I like that players may now take a Pit Stop, instead of feeling bad about a disappointing draw.


February 18, 2015
Art continues to roll in. The box top, box bottom, cards...everything is looking great. In fact, I played on the almost-final board last night. Great stuff.


Playtesting on the final board

Additionally, AEG has really kicked into high gear to polish all the card abilities and costs for this last home stretch. We have had quite a few lively discussions lately regarding any remaining tweaks and balances. The game is getting even better.


Final box bottom


March 26, 2015
I'm continuing to work on the rulebook, which is proving to be a bear. Probably the most difficult rulebook I have had to write when it comes to the examples. This is not because the rules are difficult, but because each example must reference not just the cubes on a player's mat, but also the main board and the cards. It makes for tough illustrations when it comes to multi-step actions. Sigh.


Rulebook notes and changes


May 12, 2015
One last rulebook pass... actually had a few significant updates this time. John Goodenough has been amazing keeping up with all the updates. At this point I'm feeling really confident about the rulebook. Man, I'm excited for people to start playing this!

Check out the final rulebook on the AEG website. I'm very proud of it.


July 10, 2015
The game is officially announced by AEG! I'm overflowing with excitement. I can't wait to share this game with everyone.

And that's the last entry in my Automobiles journal. I'm looking forward to racing in October!

David Short
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Mon Aug 17, 2015 6:13 pm
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Designer Diary: Suburbia 5★

Ted Alspach
United States
San Jose
California
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While designing/developing Suburbia Inc, the first expansion to Suburbia, I was dead set on providing a five-player version of the game as it was something that several people asked for when Suburbia was released. Suburbia Inc was initially tested with five players, and during that time one of the critical discoveries was that the Market board — the big triangle that has the tiles priced below it — needed at least one extra slot for five players.

Five players worked, but it tended to be slower than I was comfortable with. Given that, the production cost of adding wood bits to a non-boxed expansion, and Lookout (the German publisher of Suburbia) questioning the concept of five players — it seems that this isn't so much an issue in Germany; I'll have to look into the cultural reasons at some point — the five-player portion was scrapped from the expansion.

Suburbia Inc was released, people seemed pretty happy with the new borders, bonuses, and challenges, as well as the new set of tiles, but I kept hearing requests for two things: (1) the ability to add a fifth player and (2) even more tiles to keep cities more interesting and unique — and that's what Suburbia 5★ ended up delivering, in a way that combined the two features but allows them to exist separately if players want to. The five-player part was kinda done, but there was this nagging feeling that it could be better. However, I put that aside and focused on the other aspect of the expansion: new tiles.

Tourism Tiles

In this particular case, the theme of the expansion (tourism) was at the forefront. I thought it would make cities much more interesting, if, as in real life, they had a few notable destinations that were unique to each of them, actual reasons you'd want to visit those cities, and as a result, might end up settling there. With that in mind, I set out to create fifty new, unique building tiles that would keep gameplay fresh and even more fun than the base game. For reference, both the base game and Suburbia Inc have at least two copies of each tile, so having unique tiles is indeed something quite different.




I started by listing all of the interesting kinds of tourist traps and landmarks that would be fun to have in your cities. Most of them were real world locations, and a few were amalgamations of some, while others were simply made up because they sounded interesting. As I looked at the list, I realized that having real world buildings next to fake ones just wasn't working, and there's always the possibility that some government bureaucrat would see their local landmark in the game and demand a licensing fee (since we all know they are busy web surfing at work anyway). So the decision was made to rename everything to new names, some of which are puns.


When figuring out the attributes of the tiles, the first thing to do was to assign them a color. (In Suburbia, each color represents a major "kind" of building: Blue for Commercial, Green for Residential, Yellow for Industrial, and Gray for Civic.) I had to be a little bit flexible in doing this eventually as tourist destinations are likely to be commercial more than not.

After that, it was time to assign benefits to the tiles. Most tiles have two benefits: an instant benefit and a conditional benefit. (Occasionally they don't have one or the other.) Because these tiles would be replacing existing base game (or Inc) tiles, some of the standard benefits had to be available, such as adding income and reputation. However, about one-third of the tiles have new functionality, such as the Dollar Arcade's instant ability that gives the player who builds it $1 for each population they currently have. It's in the B stack, so the player's population is typically between 15 and 30 when it's initially purchased...but if they invest in it towards the end of the game, it can be worth $70, $80, even $100!


At this point I had a lot more than fifty ideas for tiles, and decided that some of them would actually work better as Borders (which were introduced in Inc). I started with an additional twelve borders (same as Inc), but by the time the game was completed, that number was whittled down to six.

Stars

I liked the idea of rating all of the tiles from 1 to 5 tourist stars, with the 5-star tiles being the best ones, and the 1 star ones being just slightly more interesting than a standard building. I arbitrarily assigned star values to each tile, just to give me a place to start from, and realized that nothing quite reached 5-star status — partially because people have different tastes, and if I were using stars as the overall attractiveness of these destinations, even the traditional 5-star resort isn't really 5 stars for everyone because some people just aren't that interested in those resorts.

Now that I had the stars on the tiles, what would they do? Initially, I thought it could just be a collection thing where there would be a new Star goal, or maybe even a permanent Star goal that was worth double which everyone was vying for. On the subject of goals, one of the nagging criticisms of Suburbia is that if you have a fewest/lowest kind of goal, it can be difficult to win if an opponent just doesn't purchase a certain tile for no other reason than they don't need any of them, resulting in you missing out on your goal because you're tied, so the second use of stars could be for breaking ties in goals. Still, neither of those sounded all that compelling, and since stars were sort of the focal point of an expansion around tourism, they had to have more meaning. That's when I came up with the Star track.


There was some internal debate on the Star track about having it be an additional row on the players' borough boards, but because the actual number of Stars you have is irrelevant compared to how many more or fewer stars you have than your opponents, a new community track was put in place. And that's when the Star Track started to fall very nicely into place, doing the following:

1) Setting the turn order based on your position on the Star Track, with stacking order breaking ties. This, combined with the tie-breaking of goals for the leader, works amazingly well. In Suburbia, going last towards the end of the game is a distinct advantage because it allows you to move on goals without anyone being able to affect you. However, since ties are broken by the most stars, it presents an interesting decision point when you're close to other players with various goals.

2) Providing an extra population for the players who are furthest along the track, and removing a population from the players who have gone the least far on the track. This simulates the popularity of a town over time as people move into the places that are more interesting and have more to do than in less interesting towns.

3) Breaking ties for goals based on your position on the Star track at the end of the game. The last few spaces on the Star track limit the number of tokens that can be placed there to encourage a bit of a race towards the end of the game.

4) A little bump in income early in the track and a +1 bump in reputation later give players mini-goals to reach.

One of the things that naturally worked out was the use of Investment markers on tiles with stars; as with other benefits, Investment Markers double the number of stars on a tile, so if you want to jump ahead on the star track and no star tiles are available, you can simply invest in one you already have.

The goals for stars remained, but they are for the number of star tiles, not your position on the Star track. Black stars are used to indicate Star tiles, while Gold Stars are used for moving on the Star Track.

Several of the new tiles have star tile interactions, such as the Starry Sidewalk, which provides $2 for every star tile in play.


Five Players

Flexible turn order with the Star track is what really makes five players work in Suburbia. It potentially reduces the downtime between turns and keeps all players engaged at the end of each round (once all five players have gone) because that's when turn order switches and when some players gain or lose population.

From previous testing with five players in Suburbia Inc, I knew we'd need an additional spot on the Market board, which meant that 5★ would have to include a new Market board. That's okay because the new Star track needed a home, and that was a perfect place for it. To accommodate the needs for five versus two/three/four players, the board is double-sided (something I stole from Castles of Mad King Ludwig).

Five players also required a new borough board and set of wood tokens, which by popular demand are green. In addition, two copies of the base tiles — Suburbs, Heavy Factories, and Community Parks — were needed. Why two? Because in addition to the fifth player needing a set, the supply of extra base tiles was increased from four to five.

Tile Tweaking

As the game was in development, benefits and prices of tiles were constantly in flux, but the longest and probably most tedious portion of the development process was getting the prices right. The stars add value to tiles, but how much? How much more is a player willing to pay for a Star tile with the exact same benefits as a non-star tile? This part is that 20% of the work that takes 80% of the time.

Then there's the testing of the tiles with all of the base game tiles and figuring out what the correct mix of tiles is. With any Suburbia expansion, there's the risk of dilution for some of the tile icons, like Airports and Schools; adding in too many new tiles results in less interaction for the remaining tiles with those icons. There are ways to get around this, but they're really cumbersome and require super long set-up times. In the end, it was decided that a simple random mix of tiles was fine, and if players want to customize their stacks to avoid dilution, they may do so.

Production

Most purchasers of Suburbia Inc were very happy that it didn't come in a box since they would be storing the expansion in the original box anyway. I didn't know if that would be possible with the new expansion due to the wood pieces, but I was able to do it with some clever packaging.

Using the rules and the "back of the box" info sheet as the top and bottom of the expansion, I created a hole in every punchboard where the wood pieces sit. Manufacturing inserts a baggie with the wood pieces into the holes, covers the punchboards with rules, shrinkwraps it, and voilà! A boxless expansion that has wood pieces in it.


The resulting expansion adds just enough of a twist to Suburbia to be fun for all players, regardless of player count, and if you have five in your game group, you'll all be able to play!

Ted Alspach
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Wed Jul 29, 2015 1:40 pm
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Publisher Diary: Mysterium, or What's the Difference Between Mysterium and Tajemnicze Domostwo?

Libellud Team
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This article covers the differences between Mysterium and Tajemnicze Domostwo. It is aimed at inquiring readers and fans of the version published by Portal, who already know the game.

Some lucky players may have already had the opportunity to play Mysterium during conventions where Libellud or Asmodee were present, and others are already acquainted with its cousin, Tajemnicze Domostwo, which was first released in 2013 by Ukrainian publisher IGAMES, and subsequently from the Portal Games crew, where the game had already made for itself a reputation thanks to its rules, which were translated into English online.

And now, following a long wait — and lots of pressure — for the new Libellud release, Mysterium will be arriving on the shelves of your favorite hobby and specialty stores this coming October 2015 (with a pre-release at Gen Con 2015 in August). We've decided to clarify things for you by comparing Portal's Polish version, Tajemnicze Domostwo, with Mysterium, the Libellud version. Is Mysterium a translation, an adaptation, or a whole new edition?

Don't worry! Mysterium and Tajemnicze Domostwo share common DNA, notably for their game mechanisms and that they are both investigation games that use cards. Players enter a mysterious manor in which a crime took place several years earlier. In this fantastic and supernatural ambiance, players have to reveal the truth about this tragic event, identifying the culprit, the location of the murder, and with which weapon the crime took place.

Mysterium is an asymmetric game, meaning that the players won't all play the same way. The player who takes on the role of the ghost is the unofficial game master and guides the other players, the psychics, who will use their gifts to advance in their investigation ... but there is only one way to win: together! Mysterium is also a cooperative game: All of the players, no matter what their role, have the same goal — free the ghost's soul. Everyone loses or wins together, and so everyone must help each other!

The ghost cannot speak and can communicate with the psychics only through illustrated cards. The psychics have to discuss the interpretation of these images between themselves, while hoping that their intuition is spot on!

An overview of the game: Many combinations to find, but only one will be the right one! In a first phase, each psychic has to guess one combination of three elements: a character, a location, and an object. The ghost already knows all of the combinations and has to guide each psychic by giving them illustrated cards in order to put them on the right track. When all of the combinations have been found (the number will be equal to the number of psychics), then the second phase begins. From all of the combinations, the psychics must determine which combination is the right one, meaning which one points at the one and only culprit.

At this point, it should be clear that we kept the elements which made Tajemnicze Domostwo a unique game which has already successfully enticed players! Following many playtests, the Libellud team felt that parts of the game could be changed to make the Mysterium experience even more immersive. Thanks to our gifts as psychics, we had the intuition that one element had to be preserved: the crystal ball tokens! While present in the IGAMES version, you will also be able to find some in the Libellud version. But that’s not all — you'll also be able to download from the Libellud website a soundtrack that will further immerse you in the dark and supernatural ambiance...



Tokens from the IGAMES version


Intuition tokens in Mysterium


Enter Warwick Manor

To develop Mysterium, we've also re-worked some of the gameplay elements, but took special care with the world. Tajemnicze Domostwo already offered a mysterious ambiance, but we wanted to go further. The story surrounding the game, as well as the artwork, has been redone in order to offer a more thrilling experience.

In Tajemnicze Domostwo, the haunted manor is located in France and the ghost is its former owner. Wrongfully accused and executed for a crime he didn't commit, he enters the dreams of the manor's inhabitants to reveal what really happened to them. The psychics were called by the current owner of the manor to bring peace to the house. For seven nights they receive the ghost's dreams and use them to reveal to the world who the real culprit is.




In Mysterium, we chose to move the manor to Scotland, a land known for its many haunted castles! In addition to that, Libellud is a French publisher who loves to travel into mysterious realms. The ghost is a servant from Warwick Manor who was murdered in 1894 during the birthday evening organized for the owner's daughter. The facts were troubling, but none of the guests present caught the attention of the police. Following a hurried investigation, the authorities ruled it as an accident. The Warwick family moved, and the case was quickly forgotten...



Conrad MacDowell, new owner of Warwick manor


In the 1920s, the new owner, Conrad MacDowell, a brilliant astrologer, feels a supernatural presence and invites the greatest psychics of the time to solve this mystery. They choose to gather on the night of Samhain (which is the origin of Halloween) in which the border between the world of the living and the great beyond is thinner. As they are brilliant psychics with powerful gifts, they manage to make contact with the ghost haunting the manor. Very shocked by his death, he can communicate only through the use of visions. The psychics have to resolve the mystery in seven hours, that is, before sunrise and the end of the night of Samhain for otherwise they'll have to wait a full year before attempting it again.



Tick, tock, time is running short for Conrad and the other psychics


Two Game Phases, Revisited

Tajemnicze Domostwo contains two game phases. In the first one, the psychics must attempt to reconstruct the events using the dreams projected by the ghost. Each psychic attempts to discover their combination of three elements, starting with the item, then the location, and finally the character. Once all the players are successful, they get a more precise vision of the events and will, in a second phase, get new dreams which will tell them, from among the suspects, who is the true culprit.

Mysterium also has two phases of play, but they are different. The first phase is the reconstruction of events, in which the psychics each follow a lead and begin by identifying the suspect to then retrace their evening. (Where were they? What weapon did they have at hand?) The ghost guides each psychic with visions. The first step is to interpret the visions. The psychics express their opinions and debate on the significance of the images before indicating their intuition. In a second step, the ghost manifests to identify whether these choices were good or not. These two steps are repeated until either all psychics have recovered all three elements of their combination or seven hours have passed.

Once all of the combinations are assembled, the psychics have identified all of the potential suspects, but the night is well on. The second phase then begins, so it's time to reveal the true culprit. All of the combinations discovered by the psychics are reconstructed: it's the suspect line-up. The ghost remembers the identity of his killer, and with the last of its strength, sends a final vision during the shared vision step. The psychics have only a single chance to find the solution! The novelty is that this step (called the straw poll) is silent and the vote secret: After a full night of spiritism, each psychic must use all of their concentration to receive the last message from the ghost.




A New, More Harmonious World of Art

Many artists have worked on Tajemnicze Domostwo: Igor Burlakov did the dream cards, and Mariusz Gandzel and Karolina Węcka did the character, location, and item cards. Many talented artists were involved in the creation of these illustrations that contribute to the Tajemnicze Domostwo's distinctive ambiance. We created a new story, and as such we chose to rework the game's visual world. Stéphane Gantiez, art director at Libellud, searched at length to create a coherent whole. All of the game's elements had to anchor themselves in the story we wanted to tell: that of a séance in an old Scottish manor at the beginning of the twentieth century.



In addition to being useful to the game, the screen (described later) allows us to establish a supernatural ambiance


The 84 dream cards have become vision cards, but we kept all of the artwork; only the back of the cards has been changed. All created by the same artist, they are at the heart of the game and were not changed.



The artwork of the dream cards, now vision cards, hasn't changed...


...but the backs have, with Tajemnicze Domostwo on left and Mysterium on right


Those who have played Tajemnicze Domostwo are very attached to the artwork of that version, which creates a dark and anguished atmosphere. We wanted to keep a disquieting ambiance in Mysterium, but also give it its own identity while maintaining coherence with the storytelling and the Libellud's editorial line. The art style we were looking for in Mysterium had to be more accessible for a family audience, but it remains uncanny, supernatural, and fantastic. To put in place such a specific ambiance as this, we chose Xavier Collette, with whom we had previously worked on Dixit Journey and who is also known for his work on Abyss. He's the one who gave life to the characters, to the various rooms of the manor, and to the objects you will discover in Mysterium.



First sketches of the characters by Xavier Collette


For the character, location, and object cards, we attempted to get the most coherence possible. All of the characters, locations, and objects present in Mysterium must be able to find their place in a manor; this is why adjustments were made. Some elements were discarded for being too exotic or far-fetched for a Scottish manor! But they were replaced with others which better matched the storytelling.




The lighthouse and beach cards from Tajemnicze Domostwo have been discarded...



...in favor of the garden shed and the pantry, which were added in Mysterium


The shuriken from Tajemnicze Domostwo have given way to a small chest in Mysterium


These adjustments also broached the approach and the style of some cards. Many themes on cards in Tajemnicze Domostwo were kept, but the style and the ambiance were completely changed to add mystery.




On top, the attic in its Tajemnicze Domostwo version, and below, the Mysterium version;
some elements have been added or modified, and the atmosphere has become more disturbing


On many other cards, most of the elements were kept but were slightly adjusted by Xavier Collette's creative flair, such as a different angle or another way of looking at the same object, location, or starting character.




The point of view is angled differently, but it's the greenhouse in both cases



Gloves and magic wand are present for both versions of the magician


The reworked visuals for Mysterium help create an immersive ambiance colored by the supernatural. The changes made to the game's art bring a coherence to its ambiance and its world. All of these esthetic changes go in hand with work on the contents and on the adjustment of the game mechanisms.

Reworked Gameplay and Enhanced Player Experience

In Tajemnicze Domostwo, the game's difficulty could be adapted by using four different game modes ranging from "easy" to "very difficult". It's possible to change difficulty by adjusting the number of discards allowed for the ghost, but also the number of cards present on the table. In the hardest difficulty and with seven players, the psychics could have up to twelve different cards of each type: characters, locations, and weapons.

In Mysterium, it's still possible to change the difficulty level but according to three modes. Even with seven players, the number of cards of the various types is never higher than nine, which allows for an easier set-up, limits the number of red-herrings, and makes the game area easier to read — but nothing keeps players from making the game harder by adding more than nine cards if they so wish.

The number of times the ghost is allowed to discard vision cards remains unchanged. In Tajemnicze Domostwo, when discarding, the ghost has to give up all his dream cards and draw seven new cards. In Mysterium, when the ghost discards vision cards, he chooses how many cards to discard and how many to keep, drawing the appropriate number of cards to make up his hand to seven. Crow tokens have been introduced to keep track of the ghost's discards. When the ghost discards his cards, he places a crow marker on the screen (which we'll tell you about shortly). This prevents the ghost from giving in to any temptation to cheat, but it's also a way for the psychics to know if he's having trouble with his vision cards or not.



Crows perch on the game screen, providing the ghost with another means of indirectly communicating with the psychics


The game's difficulty can be adapted depending on the number of players in Mysterium


An Easier Set-up

Tajemnicze Domostwo has two sets of character, location, and object cards: one for the ghost and one for the psychics, each differentiated by their backs. During set-up, the same cards must be sorted into each set.



The cards with blue backs are for the ghost, and those with brown backs are for the psychics;
in both cases, the character, location and object cards have different back designs


In Mysterium, the two sets of cards also have different backs (and different from Tajemnicze Domostwo's), but they also can be differentiated by their size and their numbers. The ghost's cards have all identical size in order to fit more easily into the screen. The character and location cards are larger for the psychics, while their objects are smaller. The colors (brown and blue) are still the same. The back of the cards are also numbered, which allow players to match the ghost cards and the psychic cards: the cards are identified more simply and set-up is facilitated.



To facilitate game set-up, ghost and psychic cards have numbered backs, enabling pairs to be formed at a glance


The Screen

In Tajemnicze Domostwo, during set-up, the ghost determines different combination of three elements (character, location, object), which each psychic has to find. To do this, he places in front of himself the three corresponding cards face down under a token of the color of the psychic; the ghost can then deal dream cards to each psychic. The ghost cannot see the cards of the combinations and must rely on his memory or manipulate them, which can cause the game to run longer (especially with seven players).



In Tajemnicze Domostwo, the ghost cards forming each psychic's combination
are placed face down under the player's marker


The addition of a screen in Mysterium is a real improvement for all players. The actions of the ghost are hidden, which adds more mystery, and he is more free with his movements. This disposition is more comfortable for the ghost, and reminds others of his position as game master.

During set-up, the ghost composes all of the combinations and sets them up in the screen. Therefore, he no longer has to remember the cards or needlessly handle them. He has a direct visual access to all the combinations the psychics must find. The ghost can focus on the dealing of adapted vision cards.



Set-up of the ghost cards in the screen in Mysterium


The combination of three elements that the purple psychic must identify is shown highlighted in purple on the play area;
the player must determine the character, the location and lastly the object, always in that order


In addition to the screen, we added ghost tokens, in the color of each psychic. When the ghost hands cards to the psychics, the ghost move the token towards the screen. When he manifests, after having validated (or refuted) a psychic's answer, he pulls it back towards him. The ghost knows at any time to whom he has dealt cards. When a psychic discovers an element of their combination, the ghost flips the matching card in the screen: He knows at all times at which point of their investigation each psychic is at.



When the ghost has given cards to a psychic, he moves the ghost token of the matching color towards the screen


Other than the ergonomic improvement it represents, the screen also allows for a considerable time savings. The games are more fluid for the ghost, even when the psychics are numerous. All manipulations are made during set-up, which allows us to reduce the average time of the games to 42 minutes for Mysterium while it was around 1h30 for Tajemnicze Domostwo. Players focus only on the investigation during the game!

Timed Rhythm

One of the central mechanisms of the game is the debate of the psychics around the interpretation of images given by the ghost. This can create endless discussions, as each psychic has their own subjectivity. In Tajemnicze Domostwo, discussion time is not limited, which can sometimes result in longer games and lulls in gameplay. This obviously depends on the type of players around the table.

We added a timer in Mysterium to give more rhythm to the discussion phases between psychics. The ghost deals vision cards to the psychics, one after the other, and as soon as they receive them they can freely debate about their interpretation. It's only when all psychics have received vision cards that the two-minute timer is started. It can seem restrictive to some, but it's when the timer is not there that it becomes vital to add dynamism and tension to the game.

Progress on the Boards

In Tajemnicze Domostwo, the character, location, and objects cards of the psychics are sorted on the play by type, but don't have a clear area they must be in. For games with seven players, there can be up to 36 cards on the table (twelve per type), which is considerable, and can make the game complex visually.



Example set-up (with nine cards of each type) for Tajemnicze Domostwo (photo: BoardGameGeek)


In Tajemnicze Domostwo, each player has an individual progress board and uses a token to track the progress of his investigation.



Individual boards and tokens symbolically represent the players' progress (photo: BoardGameGeek)


Mysterium has no individual boards, but individual sleeves for the psychics, with the cards being separated by four progress boards.



The character progress board


The location progress board


The object progress board


The epilogue progress board


The purpose of the character, location and object progress boards is to define areas containing the various types of cards used during the first phase of play (i.e., the reconstruction of events, during which each psychic attempts to identify a combination of three elements). They also give players an overview of the group's overall progress. They allow to us to clearly limit the cards, but also show the advancement of players. When a player has completed a section, they place their token on the next progress board. The progress of the psychics is more visible, the play area clearer, and players have the feeling that they're really progressing in the investigation.



The play area is better delineated and easier to read


The three character, location, and object progress boards are set aside for the culprit revelation phase. The play area is totally modified to recreate the groups of suspects discovered during the reconstruction of events. Each group is identified thanks to the back of the ghost tokens (which we previously told you about). On his side, the ghost has culprit tokens (also numbered), which allow him to designate the group containing his murderer. The culprit token is placed face-down on the epilogue progress board and is flipped over only at the complete end of the game, guaranteeing suspense until the very last moment.



Reverse of the ghost tokens used to number the suspect groups


The suspect groups are formed, then numbered


The culprit token revealed at game's end shows the number of the group that the ghost has chosen as the culprit


Clairvoyancy Tokens to Balance the Roles and Phases

Mysterium, like its cousin Tajemnicze Domostwo, is an asymmetric game in which the players are either taking on the role of the ghost, or that of a psychic, and thus aren't performing the same actions. In Tajemnicze Domostwo the role of the ghost appears to us richer than that of the psychics. The latter had fewer actions to perform in the game and had to wait during the distribution of the vision cards. To rebalance it and make it more fun to play the psychics, we've put in place a system of clairvoyancy tokens.

In Tajemnicze Domostwo, the players who were faster in finding their combination of three cards weren't rewarded for their efficiency. They could help, but had no real actions left to perform until the other psychics discovered their own combinations.

In Mysterium, the faster a psychic fulfills their task, the more clairvoyant they are, the more clairvoyancy points and moves on the track of the same name they get. Even after successfully discovering their three-card combination, psychics continue to play and score points. In particular, they can express their opinion on other psychics' choices by playing any remaining clairvoyance tokens.



The double-sided clairvoyance track, along which the psychics progress by scoring points;
the number of players determines which side is used


In Mysterium, each psychic has a limited number of clairvoyancy tokens which allow them to express their agreement or disagreement with another player’s intuition. A psychic has four or six tokens (depending on the number of players) to give their opinion.



A psychic has an equal number of agreement and disagreement clairvoyancy tokens


The tokens can earn points on the clairvoyancy track in both cases: agreeing with an intuition which turns out right, or disagreeing with an intuition which turns out false. Disagreeing in a cooperative game can finally earn you points! Moving up on the track allows us to measure the efficiency of a psychic, their level of clairvoyancy during the game. This progression is individual, but will help all psychics during the final phase.



Example of clairvoyancy point scoring


During the event reconstruction phase, the clairvoyancy tokens allow players to avoid one of the pitfalls of cooperative games: the leader or "alpha player" effect. Even if a player didn't express themselves orally during the debates, they can still make their opinion known using the tokens and their thoughts will have weight in the game. They also allow us to strengthen the cooperation between players. Psychics have a vested interest in the cards received by other players throughout the game, as they must express their opinion in order to score points and maximize the whole group's chances of finding the true culprit at the end of the game! The clairvoyancy tokens allow us to involve the psychics more deeply and each of them now takes an active role in the debates.

Psychic Sleeves for Smooth Transitions

In Tajemnicze Domostwo, the psychics had individual boards to represent their progress in their investigation.



Each psychic has his own sleeve, in which the three cards forming the required combination will be stored


In Mysterium, the ghost cards are held behind the game screen and cannot be used for the final phase, leaving only the psychic cards arranged on the table. Each psychic has his own sleeve in which to store the psychic cards collected during the reconstruction of events. For the final phase of the game, the character, location and object progress boards are cleared to one side. The suspect groups are easier to form as the cards for each combination are held directly in each psychic's sleeve. The sleeves also serve another purpose, holding the clairvoyance tokens used for the straw poll during the final phase.



The cards collected by each psychic are arranged in groups during the suspect line-up


A New Final Phase

In Tajemnicze Domostwo, the ghost cards that form the combinations are placed face down at the start of the game and are revealed as the investigation progresses. When all of these ghost cards have been revealed, they are re-used for the final phase. Psychic cards, on the other hand, are returned to the game box as they are played.

In Mysterium, once the suspect groups have been identified, the ghost will send a shared vision to the psychics. Made up of three cards — one being a reference to a character, one to the location, and the last one to the object, but be careful, the cards will have been shuffled! — the psychics will not have access to them the same way, depending on their clairvoyancy level.

The players with the fewest points on the clairvoyancy track will have access only to a single card, without knowing if it refers to the character, location, or object card. They will secretly, and without consulting each other, vote first by placing a clairvoyancy token, numbered on the back, in their personal sleeve. Then it'll be the turn of the moderately clairvoyant psychics to secretly vote while having access to two cards. Finally, the most effective psychics (who will therefore have access to all three cards) will also vote individually and in silence. Even though players vote individually, Mysterium remains a cooperative game as the culprit is designated by the majority. When revealing the culprit, the ghost's vision is formed, transmitted and voted on in total silence, adding extra tension to this special phase of the game.



The level of access to the final, shared vision may vary between players, based on their progress along the clairvoyance track


The more accurate a player's intuitions during the reconstruction of events, the more clues they see
before voting in the straw poll, potentially increasing their chances of voting for the true culprit


The clairvoyance tokens have numbered backs; psychics vote by placing the token bearing the number
that matches their chosen group of cards into their sleeve


In Tajemnicze Domostwo, the psychics had many chances to discover the culprit if they had enough rounds left. In Mysterium, the shared vision sent by the ghost is also the last, and the psychics have only a single chance to discover the true culprit. Therefore, the tension reaches its highest point for the psychics as well as the ghost. Unlike the rest of the game, he has only a single chance to get his message across and he can't afford to miss it! The occasion to check that the spiritual bond between psychics and ghost was truly clear!

Mysterium: Simple Adaptation or New Game?

The development has lasted for almost two years, with almost everything wll having been reworked, from artwork to game mechanisms, but the Portal game's identity has been kept. It's therefore not just a simple translation of Tajemnicze Domostwo or a new edition, but a whole new game. All of the changes within have been motivated by improving the ease of play and for a more intense immersion. The duration of the game has been reduced, which means less dead time and waiting, but no less action for the players. The changes in the Libellud version have been made to offer a more coherent, more balanced, and more exciting game experience to the players. Those who liked Tajemnicze Domostwo will not be bewildered by Mysterium, but they will be as surprised by this new edition as those who are discovering the game for the first time, at least, we hope they are!

For all the details, the rules for Mysterium are available on Libellud's website.

Léa Moinet

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Sat Jul 25, 2015 12:57 am
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Designer Diary: Clockwork Wars, or Intricate Gears

Hassan Lopez
United States
Saratoga Springs
New York
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I had been playing around with game design for years, but Clockwork Wars represented my first serious attempt at designing a complex strategy board game. The idea for it originally stemmed from my love/hate relationship with most traditional "dudes-on-a-map" conquest games. I love how these games feature beautiful maps, multitudes of units, and a grand theater on which to play — but I despise the long playing times, the over-emphasis on dice to determine critical outcomes, and the tedious downtime between individual player turns. If the modern board game "revolution" has taught us one thing, it's that players crave elegant, fast-moving games that still provide an epic feel.

I also have a great fondness for computer games, and I started to envision how certain elements from real-time strategy games could be infused into a cardboard design. I wanted to model fog-of-war, simultaneous movement, and the surprise (dismay!) that ensues when you discover that the enemy has unexpectedly cut off your supply lines. During this early stage of design, I hit upon a mechanism by which players would make their unit deployment decisions in secret, hidden behind a play-screen, then reveal them simultaneously prior to resolving battles. At first, I used a "mini-map" of the war theater – something akin to what you see in hidden movement games like Fury of Dracula. This eventually got replaced by a more efficient and flexible pen & paper system that allowed for maps of any shape and size.



Early prototype, circa 2009


The original design was two-player only. There was a modular map made up of hexagonal tiles, different territory types that provided resources, and a tiered technology tree that opened up as the players advanced through the game.

From the beginning, I wanted my theme to be fantasy-steampunk. At the time, I was reading China Miéville's Bas-Lag novels and coming to realize that steampunk was an infinite and largely unexplored creative space. I envisioned a world where magic and steam-era technology intertwined, where a golem could be brought to life through a combination of esoteric science and techno-sorcery. Since I needed a third "method of inquiry" to fill out my tech-tree, I introduced religion and a dogmatic subculture. It was surprisingly easy to generate discoveries in science, sorcery, and religion that both brought life to the world and created unique strategic pathways in the game. At this point in my design process, I felt I was on to something. The game felt fun and evocative and unique.



Sample science discoveries


After I crafted a solid prototype and playtested Clockwork Wars many, many times, it was ready to show to people in the business. I contacted a number of well-known publishers in early 2010, and Eagle Games expressed significant interest after reviewing the rulebook and prototype. I was absolutely thrilled, but this also began a long, slow period (around three years!) of waiting and, eventually, development.

During this time, Eagle first asked me to consider expanding the game to accommodate 2-5 players. I was hesitant since I had never envisioned it as anything other than a two-player game. But Eagle pushed, and I'm glad they did. After all, the simultaneous deployment system eradicated downtime, so why not take advantage of this by allowing more players to join?

It took major revision of some of the core systems, but a lot of great stuff happened during this phase. I built a more fully fleshed espionage system that gave players more ways to interact with each other outside of the combat arena. I created more ways to earn victory points so that there were multiple strategic pathways to winning. And maps became infinitely flexible in shape, size, and composition.



Sample espionage card


It was also during this phase that Eagle suggested I design unique "powers" for each of the player factions. In retrospect, this was a critical point in the development of Clockwork Wars. Over a period of around a week, I sketched out a world where five races were competing for supremacy: the dogmatic and exploitative human "Purebreeds", three hybrid races (à la The Island of Dr. Moreau), and a race of sentient clockwork machines that mimicked spiders and insects. I also honed in on the idea of a racial unique unit. Clockwork Wars had always featured simplistic (and non-random) combat resolution; the unique units added some much-needed flavor and variety on the battlefield.




Front and back of the Mongrels playscreen


With the theme and setting in place, we began the long process of commissioning illustrations for the game's 80+ cards and components. We ended up hiring over a dozen illustrators from around the world, and every one of them produced extraordinary work, including some truly astounding concept art for the game's plastic miniatures: the Guardian, Steamtank, and Leviathan. If you want to download a free digital artbook that shows off all the fantastic illustrations in the game, you can find it on our official website.



Sample science discoveries


Eagle launched the Kickstarter for Clockwork Wars in September 2014. Since I'm a pessimist at heart, I assumed we wouldn't raise a dime and Eagle would trash the project. Instead, we met our funding goal in under twelve hours and doubled it in two days! I was shocked. (I still am.)

I then worked with the fantastic graphic artist Karim Chakroun to finalize our components and get everything to the printer ahead of schedule. I can't thank Karim enough for the absolutely stellar job he did refining every last detail and making the game truly "pop". Clockwork Wars started shipping to backers in June 2015 and is now available through retail outlets (including the Cool Stuff Inc. booth at Gen Con 2015).

If you like the idea of a confrontational area control game with infinite replayability, no downtime, light civilization building, and a gritty steampunk setting (no bowler hats here!), please check out Clockwork Wars. The game turned out absolutely gorgeous, with stellar production value and vibrant colors that pop off the table. I can assure you that it doesn't play like anything else out there and should appeal to a broad array of strategy game enthusiasts.

Hassan Lopez


Final production copy in all its glory!
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Thu Jul 23, 2015 6:00 am
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Designer Diary: Co-Mix, or How an "Easy to Develop" Game Idea Turned Out to Be Not So Easy to Develop

Silva Lorenzo
Italy
Milano
Italy
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The original idea for what would eventually become Co-Mix came to me around three years ago, as one of the many small personal side-projects I start when I have an idea haunting my head, but I'm not sure whether it can be made into a proper game. The idea: "Can I create a storytelling game that makes you play cards not only to introduce plot elements, but to actually create the full story in a graphical way?"



Something like this. Looks easy, hunh? Well, think again.


This may not seem that different from a "normal" storytelling game, but if you think about it with more attention, it's a rather unique approach, and it was never attempted before (at least to my knowledge). The ultimate goal was to give players a tool to create comics (or storyboards, if you're more familiar with cinematic terminology), to give them a game with "panel cards" depicting not only characters, objects and settings, but also "connection images" — things like shot changes, details, and actions — to fill the gaps you would usually fill with your words and storytelling skills. It doesn't sound like a difficult thing to do, right? You just have to draw those "connection images" and a bunch of the other more regular stuff and call it a day, right? Riiiiight.

But surprisingly (?), problems are always waiting for you around each corner, and I had to turn many corners before Co-Mix could eventually be born...

Problem #1: "What If the Game Developer Can't Draw?"

Answer: The development of the game abruptly faces a sudden halt. With many other projects to follow, and with my lack of drawing skills making it difficult to create a decent prototype, the "storyboard generator" project was archived as "a nice idea to investigate when there's more time for it" and put into the metaphoric drawer (and maybe also in an actual one, I'm not sure).



In all its ugliness, I think it still actually looks kinda cute. C'mon, look at that wolf! Adorable.


It was only after I met Matteo Cremona that new life could be brought into the project. Being a professional comic artist, Matteo could surely do a better job with those illustrations, I thought, thereby helping me to finally create a working prototype, right? Right? Well, it was right this time. Matteo turned out to be really talented, which helps a lot. Add to the mix that some time after I met him, Horrible Games was born, and you can see how the timing was perfect for the development of "The Game That Will Be Known As Co-Mix" to start again with renewed energy and enthusiasm.



Okay, maybe the final result is slightly better than mine, I admit it. I even put a lot of time and effort in it. Sigh...


The first prototype born out of this cooperation worked surprisingly well right from the start. (It turns out that years of study and practice of drawing techniques is more helpful than an amateurish effort and a lot of good will. Who would have thought?) After six months of hard work, the game was really starting to take shape. After a lot of tweaking, we had more than three hundred illustrations, with twenty different characters recurring in many of them, sometimes even interacting with each other.



Just a few examples of the various character design styles we tried


Each character also had a set of related stuff, like settings, peculiar objects, actions, and details, and all of this stuff also appeared in relation to the other characters. This gave each panel card a lot of versatility. Ideally it would be quite easy to use a panel with any other panel, even if the character it was created for was not being used in the player's story.



Sample detective panels


In addition to that, we also put into the mix a lot of "generic" panels that depicted specific actions or items or details without being associated with any other specific elements. They would work like a "joker" card; you could place them anywhere, and with the right idea, they could fit into any story.



It took Matteo a whole... like... ten seconds to draw this full page!!!
Okay, maybe a little bit more than that, but it's still... humiliating.


With so many different illustrations, the decision to make the panel cards double-sided was an early and easy one. I just needed to put a lot of thought into which illustrations would be on the back of which other illustrations to avoid a situation in which a player didn't have the kind of panels he would need for his story. If, for example, we made cards with a character on the front and another one on the back, with an unlucky draft you could have found yourself in the not-so-pleasant situation of having a lot of characters in your hand, but no action to make them do, stuff to interact with, or place to be in. It would not be a pleasant game experience, trust me. But after all, it was not that big of a deal.



When I think of how many times I had to cut and paste different combinations of these, I still get shivers down my spine


At this stage, as you can see above, all panel cards were still drawn in black and white. That was to save time and effort while still in the prototype stage, of course, but it leads us straight around the next corner just in time to smash our faces onto the next big problem.

Problem #2: "How to Color This Thing?"

Or even, "Do we need to color it at all?"

Some of you may need a little bit of context to make the above question not sound crazy. Traditionally, even to this day, Italian comics are mostly in black and white, just like Japanese manga and some other Asian comics. Tex Willer, Dylan Dog, Nathan Never, many of the Italian comic heroes you may have heard of — and if not, you should do some research — are published without any coloring (excluding the art on the covers and some special issues). We know and love a lot of color comics, of course, but it's not strange at all for us to read and enjoy a black-and-white comic.



Even without colors, this looks gorgeous, you have to admit it


And if you think about it, a black-and-white art style gives a lot of versatility to the illustration. An image of liquid pouring out of a bottle can depict anything; paint the contents of that same bottle red, and all you've got is wine, blood, or red orange juice. There's some variety, yes but you get the point.

After long and intense meditations, to give the game a broader international and age-independent appeal, I finally opted for colors. (Even in Italy, most children's comics are in color.) And that opened a whole colorful valley of possibilities! Should the colors be realistic? Dreamy? Artsy, like watercolor or something?



From sketch to final coloring, the evolution of our grumpy vampire girl!


The style I eventually settled for was not the one I planned for during the early stages of development — although to be honest, the game started as a noir-themed game, so my initial ideas were no longer accurate anyway — but it had the right balance. It had its own identity, it suited the game well, and it may appeal to the broadest audience possible. Max Rambaldi's contribution to the coloring process was key — that, and her patience with the many slight changes, and sometimes U-turns, in art direction that she was occasionally put through.



...and when I say "U-turns", I really mean it


While all of this was happening, it was quite clear that the storytelling mechanism in the game — which by this time, even though as a working title only, was already being referred to as "Co-Mix" — was working rather well. I was facing another problem though and a more difficult than expected one...

Problem #3: "How Do You Win This Game?"

The problem with any storytelling game is this: What if a player is no good at storytelling? Most of the time, the answer is that he won't be able to play in a satisfactory manner, and he won't have much fun. For most people, that's a given of the genre itself, and the one reason it's so polarizing: Some people love storytelling games, some people plainly hate them. There are not a lot of people living in the broad, desertic gray area between these two extremes. I wanted to find a way to make the game enjoyable even for people who lacked storytelling skills — that was one of the main goals — but I needed some sort of voting mechanism, so it was a bit of a Gordian knot.



A trip to Transylvania was luckily not necessary


When you leave judgement in the hands of players (i.e., you let players vote), you're always leaving room for people's feelings to get hurt if their efforts are systematically belittled or given a bad score — and that can happen more often than what I initially thought.

Moreover, if you happen to have at the table one of those hideous people who would give a bad score to the story that's clearly the best of the bunch just because its creator is winning — there's no hell-equivalent in any afterlife you may believe in that's harsh enough for these game-spirit-ruining fellas — and your scoring system allows those people to do that, you've got a serious problem, a problem that can totally ruin the experience of the game for a lot of people, and this is exactly what I wanted to avoid when the Co-Mix project was started.



An early version of the cover illustration — gorgeous art, but it wasn't really working


I'm not going to summarize all the different — and differently flawed — scoring systems I tried; the months of doubts, pain, and suffering; the endless debates; the group psychotherapy and anger management session; the aborted pluri-homicidal plans and the attempted pagan and/or voodoo rites aimed at the eradication of the evil breed of good-story-downvoters from the entire globe once and for all. (I'm still tinkering with this last idea, though.) Out of frustration, I was very close to giving up and releasing the game without any voting mechanism at all, releasing it as a tool to tell stories and have fun. This was a version that playtesters, both old and new, enjoyed a lot, but even I felt that something would have been missing should I have gone through with that decision. Like the legendary Gordian knot, all that was needed was thinking a little bit outside of the box.



Oh, scoring, wherefore hath thou caused me so many problems?


Suddenly, and luckily, the right idea came to me. The scoring mechanism that made the cut and went into the final game solved all of the problems I mentioned above, almost magically. It was a wonderful feeling, like seeing all the pieces of a really complicated puzzle that was going to completely ruin your life, forever and ever, finally fit together in a joyous, harmonic picture of cohesion and unity. (Okay, maybe I'm exaggerating just a tiny little bit.)

By making players say only what they liked about a story, and not how much they liked it, the problem of consistent down-voting was eliminated once and for all. It's the consensus between the players, not the players themselves, that determines the score. And by rewarding people who vote honestly — by giving bonus points to any player giving to a story the "right" vote, i.e., the one the majority of people gave — king-making was obliterated, too. With this system, it's simply not a strategy that rewards you. Yes, I'm really proud of this voting mechanism. Is it very noticeable?



The final game in all its glory...


And They Lived Happily Ever After?

I'm still recovering from the PTSD any bumpy game development causes a game developer, but I'll be fine eventually, thanks for asking.

Most of all, me and my crew sincerely hope that all of our efforts allow a lot of people to have half the fun we had creating and telling crazy comic stories. That's who we are — we just want to selflessly give joy to the whole world, so feel free to buy this little thing we created, and if you already did, share it with your friends and family! And convince them to buy it, too. It can be useful in many different ways! It's the Swiss Army knife of board games! Think of a rickety table, some annoying air flowing through your window, a very cold winter and an empty fireplace asking for something to burn in it...

Lorenzo Silva
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Wed Jul 22, 2015 6:00 am
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Designer Diary: Going on My Star Trek: Five-Year Mission

David Whitcher
United States
Manchester
Michigan
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Warning: The following game contains 3, a lot of 6 — 35 4 in three colors, in fact. If you have a 2 allergy, you should stop reading now.

Most games take many years to develop. You start with an idea. You flesh out that idea. You prototype and test it over and over in what often seems like an endless cycle until the game is ready to show a publisher. If you're lucky, you find one right away, but more often than not you show your game to numerous publishers before it's accepted. If it's accepted, the publisher often requests changes to be made to fit their vision of how the game will best serve the audience they are trying to sell to. This is the process I have become accustomed to as a freelance game designer, and Star Trek: Five-Year Mission is no exception except for a few minor details.

From its conception, I designed "Star Trek / Cooperative Dice Game" for Mayfair Games. The game design community normally advises you to stay away from IP, especially big IP, because they are expensive and difficult to get the rights to, thereby making them a big risk. That is why so few publishers deal with them. I have been on the Mayfair Games demo crew for nearly a decade now and had the good fortune to find out that they were interested in doing another Trek game after Star Trek: Catan was released in 2012. I figured the odds of someone approaching them with such a design were a 1 in 10,000 chance, so I decided I would design one for them.

My first ideas were nonstarters: basic card games, board games with star maps to explore, etc. — nothing that hadn't been done with this license. It was several months after Origins 2012 when the idea came to me. I was sitting in a waiting room and quickly scrounged up paper and pencil to make notes for later. This would be a cooperative dice game in which you play the crew of the Enterprise completing dilemmas to score points. A cooperative game lends itself well to the crew of a ship, especially in the Star Trek universe, and since there are many main characters I could design it to be played with a large group.

Unlike most games I have designed, it was a long time between concept and first prototype. The original prototype had three decks of 24 cards each, with each card needing a unique set of requirements in order to complete it. I first had to create the 72 dice sets and a rubric to determine the difficulty of each card. This was not just a matter of calculating the odds of rolling the numbers needed to complete the dice set. There are other factors involved, such as urgent events that must be completed in three minutes. I also had to take into account card effects that hamper play, such as crew injuries and ship damage. Once that was finally done, I made my first prototype and did solo testing. As usual there were changes to be made before moving to testing with the public.

In the game's third iteration, I was ready to take it to one of my local game groups to get feedback. I set up the "H.M.S. Victory" prototype and found a group of four willing to give it a try. "H.M.S. Victory" is a cooperative dice game for 3-7 players in which you play the crew of a ship working together to complete events drawn from decks of varying difficulty. I tested the game in public gaming groups using this alternate theme so that fandom would not play a factor in the feedback I received.

I kept the real theme a secret until I showed it to the Mayfair Games Minister of Product Acquisitions, Alex Yeager, in June 2014. His advice allowed me to finalize the design over the next few months with the help of numerous testers, including dozens of game designers at the 2014 Protospiel held in Chelsea, Michigan, all of whom played it with the "H.M.S. Victory" theme. After several delays, which gave me more time to refine the cards further, the game was pitched to Mayfair by Alex since I was unable to travel to where they were the board was meeting.



Captains old (above) and new (below)



The game was accepted, and since then I've been working with the Mayfair team to get it ready for market. To my surprise, they chose to make Star Trek: Five-Year Mission so that you could play as either the original series crew or the TNG crew. This required another seven player abilities be devised. We also needed new titles and scenes for the additional TNG cards.

Using a later prototype with proposed graphics, we previewed the game at the 2015 Origins Game Fair, which was our last major testing opportunity. With only seven weeks to go and a promise to deliver at Gen Con 2015 — not to mention holding a charity event with actress Marina Sirtis, we had much to do. As of writing this diary, we are on schedule and expect to have plenty of copies of Star Trek: Five-Year Mission on hand for Trek fans to get Marina and me to sign on Saturday, August 1 at Gen Con 2015. Hope to see you there!

David Whitcher

Editor's note: For an overview of the gameplay in Star Trek: Five-Year Mission, head to my ST:5YM preview, which is based on a demo game that I played at Origins 2015. —WEM
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Tue Jul 21, 2015 6:46 pm
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Designer Diary: New York 1901, or How Our Family Stumbled Upon the Board Game Revival and Went on to Make Our Own Game

Chenier La Salle
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I left for Japan in 1994 as a 26-year-old bachelor with degrees in law and Eastern Asian studies. I came back to Canada ten years later in 2004 with a Japanese wife, two kids in tow (I clearly chose the "total immersion" package), and one more diploma, a master's degree on the Japanese political economy.

Beyond the Japanese skills and the scholarly pursuits, my ten years in Japan had allowed me to live an extended youth and to pick up a few hands-on skills: I became reasonably adept at assembling my own computers. The ability to do my own upgrades (new CPU, new video card, new mobo) allowed me to maintain machines that were powerful enough to run the latest and most demanding first person shooters. I played them all in Japan: Quake, Quake II, Quake III, Unreal Tournament, Half-Life (and its many "mods"), Battlefield 1942. I also played the addictive "just one more turn" games like Sid Meier's Civilization – which goes to show there are designer games in the computer world, too. This last game had a great influence on some of the board games that helped spearhead the board game revival of the late 1990s.

Eventually my growing family and the demands (time, financial) that came along with it forced me to put aside what was mainly a solo hobby to focus instead on my wife and kids. Whatever hobby I would find next needed to be a bit more inclusive...



My gaming set-up in Japan, c. 2000


Cold Canadian Nights

I returned to Alberta, Canada in 2004 with two young kids ages 5 and 2. I would put my Japanese experience to good use as a provincial civil servant in charge of developing export markets in Asia for Canadian agricultural products. Dad (me) adapted to his new job and the family slowly adapted to its new life in dad's home country, Canada.

Now, winters in Canada are generally long, but they're even longer in Edmonton, Alberta. Edmonton has the distinction of being the northernmost city in North America with a population of over one million people. Cool distinction, cold city. As the kids were getting older, the family soon settled into traditional weekend activities such as game night, which is a very fitting indoor activity when the thermometer is in negative territory, often double digit negative.

My wife and I both had a history of playing card games, so we taught the kids a few of our favorite games. When my wife taught us all how to play "Babanuki", it certainly felt familiar. In fact Babanuki is the Japanese name for the card game Old Maid. Goes to show that some classics travel well.

Once the thrill of card games was starting to wane, my wife and I started looking for something new, something that could provide the family with entertainment while helping our kids build their social and analytical skills. My wife would find it at Winners (the Canadian equivalent of Marshalls) in Calgary, c. 2006. While stopping at Winners for a quick fix of bargain hunting, my wife stumbled upon an intriguing board game in the toy section. That game was That's Life! (the English title for Ravensburger's Verflixxt). Different people have different games they can point to as "the game" that got them started on board gaming. Ticket to Ride and Catan often come up among gamers. For me it was That's Life!

Well, that's not exactly true. That's Life! didn't get me started on board gaming, but it did bring me back to board gaming after a hiatus of over fifteen years. Not long after that, I discovered the BoardGameGeek website, which led me to a string of purchases that would severely lighten my wallet: Ticket to Ride (the family calls it "the train game"), Thurn und Taxis ("the Germany game"), Finca ("the fruit game"). Within a year or two, I'd bought about 25 games. I'd buy close to one hundred more after we moved to the U.S. in 2011 where games are much cheaper...



Jean and Sakura in Edmonton, c. 2006; in Edmonton you get to
wear spiffy warm clothes as early as September! (Accentuate the positive goes the song...)


Flashback to the 1980s — Before Japan

As an adolescent in the 1980s in Montreal, I played a lot of role-playing games like Dungeons & Dragons. I enjoyed playing the packaged adventures that publishers would put out – I remember they were called "modules". It was great fun, but even then I remember wanting to be more than just an actor in a story someone else had created; I wanted to become the storyteller. I remember trying my hand at designing modules and I started to create a few, but I would never finish them. I simply didn't have the discipline. In hindsight, it's probably better that way. There's a time for playing and a time for creating. Years of passively playing (and reading, and watching movies, and watching TV) aren't all bad; in fact they're necessary because they allow you to fill up on hundreds of mechanic and thematic references. You need to fill up on references before you can make anything yourself.

Role-playing wasn't my only gaming pursuit in junior high and high school. Those years also saw me play many classic board games. I remember playing Cosmic Encounter. Anyone remember the name of the alien that can silence other players? It was just a hoot trying the different aliens. Eric had Cosmic Encounter. I also played Squad Leader. Nicolas had Squad Leader plus a few of the expansions. (His parents spoiled him a little.) I think I remember that some of the tanks even had turrets that you could direct. And the game had many different scenarios, too. It was a pleasure simply to go to Nicolas' place and open his boxes of Squad Leader and just hold the pieces in your hands and look at them. The tactile "hands on" part of playing games is something I really enjoyed. I was taking notes subconsciously...

I remember we played Diplomacy. (Mark had that one.) I remember that on more than one occasion I ended up in a solid alliance with my friend Philippe. In a cutthroat game like Diplomacy, even a single solid alliance can often get you pretty far in the game. (There might be an analogy to be made about the strength of a good marriage...) We also played The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich, a complex simulation of the Second World War. Third Reich fascinated me so much that I saved up my money to buy the game. Again, I felt a strong pleasure just in laying out the armies on the board — which is often the only thing we could do since playing a full game required ten hours and there was no table available at my home that I could monopolize for that long. You needed a basement game room for that one, which is something I didn't have as an adolescent.



So cool that I just had to save up enough to buy myself a copy


I was still gaming in the late 1980s and early 1990s when I was in college pursuing a law degree. There weren't many gamer types in law school, so I was the guy who would come up with board games for the others to play. It had to be light and easy to jump into. I bought Nuclear War and a few expansions at my FLGS and brought it to the table. It was a hit, and we must have played it forty times over my four years of law school; remember that these are non-gamers, so forty sessions made it a bona fide "crossover hit". Nuclear War is a grisly game when you think about it, but it's so absurd that it always got a laugh. I last played it over 25 years ago, but I still clearly remember your odds were significantly better when you had a few of the bigger population cards. (The biggest ones were what, 25 million people?) Predictable but still fun.

I even got the non-gamers to play relatively more complex games like Junta, a hilarious banana republic simulation that centers mostly on negotiations over the country's budget. The game also allowed disgruntled players to start a revolution to settle scores. One of the few games in which disgruntled players are part of the core mechanisms. A riot! I think I got the group to play this two or three times.

And thus, sometime in the early 1990s after graduating from law school, the first phase of my gaming career ended unceremoniously. After articling and being called to the bar, I soon left my budding legal profession behind, deciding to go back to college to study about Asia. It would be at least fifteen more years before I played another board game...

Fast Forward to 2010

I'd end up living six years in Alberta, from 2004 to 2010. The first three years I worked for the government of Alberta and the next three as vice-president of the Canada Beef Export Federation, peddling Canadian beef around the world. That last job was one of those "pinch me" moments in life. As a young French Canadian growing up in Montreal, not in your wildest dreams do you foresee ending up on the leadership team of an Alberta-based trade association promoting beef. Life just sends you on wild tangents sometimes, but I loved the job.



Towering Canadian selling beef in Macau, c. 2008


After three years with the Canadian Beef Export Federation, I got an opportunity to join the Canadian Foreign Service, something I'd always wanted to do. I headed to Ottawa in 2010 and after a single (and painfully bureaucratic) year at headquarters, I learned that I would soon leave on a four-year posting to Houston, Texas. Yeehaw! (Utterances of the word "Texas" in eastern Canada are very often accompanied by a lively cowboy interjection like "Yeehaw!" Then again the word "Alberta", where our family had lived for six years, generally gets a similar reaction in Ontario and Quebec, so we'd be in familiar territory and I was sure we'd love it there.)

Diplomat/Game Designer

The whole family arrived in Texas in the summer of 2011. On the way from the airport to our rental house, we observed the city that would be our home for the next four years. Houston was definitely the quintessential urban sprawl metropolis, a city of freeways, long avenues, and lots and lots of strip malls — a shopper's paradise.

Another thing we noticed on the way from the airport was that the parks and green spaces were all empty. This offered a strong contrast to Canada where green spaces are full of life during the summer. Canadians are very conscious of how fleeting that gorgeous season is. Now where did Texans go during the summer? The answer was that they stayed indoors because it was simply too hot to go outside. I have to admit that we were greeted by a scorcher of a summer in 2011 with temperatures above 100º for thirty days in a row, possibly a record. If it's too hot in the evening for a BBQ, I guess we'll just have to stay inside and play games — and play games we did. Beyond the too-hot-to-play-outside weather, the sudden Canadian-U.S. dollar parity coupled with the much lower price of board games (and pretty much everything else) in the United States saw dad literally go nuts. Our collection of games probably doubled over our first year in Houston and would double yet again soon.

Now playing new games is loads of fun, but pretty soon we'd played all the "gateways" dad's petro dollars could buy. Thus, it wasn't too long before dad would be bitten by the creative bug again, and this time — with the family's help (and some early PR support from a friend in Vietnam) — he'd have the discipline to see it through.

December 2011

I'd be lying if I told you the family "collectively" decided to create a game. My kids were 12, 9 and 2 when we set out on our creative adventure, so it was more a case of dad enlisting the family – a.k.a., conscription. By the time Blue Orange signed the game in the middle of 2014, my family had played over two hundred recorded and annotated sessions of what would become New York 1901. Although the game would eventually benefit from the input of over ten playtesting groups both in Houston and across the world, and from a creative hands-on product manager at Blue Orange, Stéphane Maurel, in terms of number of games played, my family was clearly the core playtesting group.

Knowing Too Much

Now here is where I could microanalyze every little decision made during the development of the game — and there were literally hundreds of such decisions made for both mechanisms and theme. (The theme would (happily) remain untouched after the acquisition by Blue Orange.) I could write a long list and cover each of these decisions and tell what the concerns were and how they were solved — but how much do people want to know?

I always wondered how much should be revealed about the process behind the development of a game — or a movie or video game for that matter. I personally love to know about the creative process, and when I pick up a gaming magazine, the only articles I systematically read are the interviews with creators because I just love a good story. However, I'm not sure I want to find out too much about the "guts" of a movie, book or game. I always thought that knowing too much about something might somehow make it a bit less magical. Does anybody agree? I guess that's my excuse to streamline the last few pages of this diary. I won't expound on all the decisions and the stories behind all of them — there are just too many — but I'll identify a few core ones and share some insights into how I saw them and how they evolved.

Because It's New York

"Theme or mechanisms — which comes first?" the question is often asked. Sometimes it's asked just to determine a designer's preferred approach. Sometimes it's asked to try to determine a best practice - which is rather pointless. But the various responses are still entertaining and it's just fun to find out how different creators approach their craft. The answer is, of course, "to each his own". But one thing is for certain, New York 1901 the game and its mechanisms evolved and flowed from New York the city. The theme informed mechanisms.

There are many reasons why I chose to make New York the theme. The first one is simply because New York is a special city. Very few cities in the world have so rich an imagery that they leave almost no one indifferent. Paris and London are such cities, and New York is another — but New York has a modern and dynamic "new world" ring to it, a ring it keeps to this day. New York is the New World's Paris or London. And even today, many still call it the world's greatest metropolis. If board games are little playgrounds — little sandboxes if you will — and if you're choosing your playground, what better playground than New York.

I've always liked games that have a historical backdrop. I'm not referring to historic simulations, which tend to be heavy, but rather to the aesthetics, to the immersive "stage" that history provides. As a historical stage for a board game, New York had been done many times before. More often than not, the chosen period is the late 1920s and early 1930s with its beautiful art deco imagery filled with the Empire State and Chrysler buildings. Although clearly a beautiful period to explore, I wanted to do something different. Through my research, I discovered the first wave of New York skyscrapers at the turn of the last century and chose that period for my game. The game would first be called "New York 1899" since starting in the 1800s made the setting feel that much older. It would eventually change to New York 1901 to ease in the use of a turn counter that would start in 1901. Turn 1 in 1901, turn 2 in 1902, easy no? The turn counter would be dropped later in development but the name would stick.



An early prototype (Sep 2012) when the game was still called New York 1899;
the game included an action point system (bottom right) that would later be dropped


When I like something, I tend to do it a lot, maybe too much. Turn-of-the-century New York became a bit of an obsession. The turn-of-the-century period has been elevated to special status in many countries around the world. In France it's literally called "the Beautiful Period" (la Belle Époque) and I think the French name is used "as is" in the German language. In England, the turn-of-the-century period straddles the Victorian and Edwardian eras, both very evocative eras. The period also saw the United States grow at tremendous speed during its "Gilded Age". It was a period of great technological and artistic achievement around the world. That era's early days even inspired the Steampunk movement, which goes to show how deep and seductive its imagery is. The "Beautiful Period" ended with the outbreak of the First World War in 1914 by the end of which the World greeted a new world power, the United States.

I devoured book after book on the subject, and since it was imagery that I was after, it was fine to be intellectually lazy and prefer books with lots of pictures. Of course my efforts focused on New York City of the period. I discovered hundreds of beautiful skyscrapers with elaborate facades. I got so enamored with the period that I started collecting vintage New York City postcards. The turn-of-the-century was the heyday of postcard collecting, so cards are very easy to find on eBay. It's also a relatively cheap hobby, and a few dollars will buy you a nice 100+ year old postcard. No half measure for me, so my collection continued to grow and eventually reached well over two thousand cards. I got so enamored with the period that I created a Facebook page devoted to vintage New York City postcards and to this day, I still update it daily.

I find lots of pleasure in knowing that the aesthetics in New York 1901 are based on authentic imagery, and I'm happy my publisher bought into this obsession wholesale. However, and you might find this strange, on more than one occasion I've refrained from telling people too much about the research behind the visuals when I introduce the game. The reason being that New York 1901 was always meant to be a family game and in my mind — tell me if I'm mistaken — I fear that if I mention all the historical sources behind the imagery, namely that every single skyscraper tile in New York 1901 was inspired by an actual building from that period, the game might come across as one of those heavy historical simulations which it simply isn't. Maybe I think too much.

Now the vast majority of the skyscrapers from the first wave were built in Lower Manhattan, in New York City's financial district. I'll admit that a game like Ticket to Ride and its familiar geographic theme (a map of North America with its biggest cities highlighted) showed that geographic familiarity would truly help ease players into a board game. It was definitely one of the creative process' Eureka moments to identify the financial district, and its familiar streets like Broadway and Wall Street as the ideal setting to use as backdrop for New York 1901.



The almost final game board (above) and a vintage 1916 map of Lower Manhattan (below) with the game's play area outlined



Now if you're going to build skyscrapers, you need to acquire the land to build them on. Here again, a bit of research would be the inspiration for some of the core mechanisms. Lower Manhattan was the oldest part of the city, and the size of the lots was determined when New York was just a small city in a young British colony; therefore, the lots were very small. Turn-of-the-century real estate developers had to acquire many small contiguous lots of land before they could finally build a "big" footprint building.

Moreover, it wasn't uncommon for pesky real estate holdouts to ruin a developer's grand plans. When confronted with a holdout, the developers often built around them. This gave us quite a few skyscrapers with very peculiar footprints. The fact that such Tetris-y structures actually existed gave me the freedom to use these shapes in the game. I didn't start with Tetris-y shapes in mind; in fact, the skyscrapers in my first prototypes were square or rectangular. If these Tetris-y buildings hadn't actually existed, I wouldn't have used these shapes since they would have felt somewhat "forced" onto the game. History dictated the shape of the tiles, or rather, it allowed me to "go Tetris" on them.



The City Investing Building of 1908; a real estate holdout (lower left)
forced the developers to change their plans and build around the holdout



City Investing tile in New York 1901


Some more historical tidbits: Turn-of-the-century construction technology was advancing rapidly, making structures obsolete very quickly. These advances were making it possible to build better and higher skyscrapers. It wasn't rare for buildings that were just ten or fifteen years old to be demolished to make way for better ones. This is also one of the concepts that I used in the game. Many of the game's concepts were "revealed" (sounds quasi-religious) by New York City history. I was just there to push it along and make it fit into a nice, efficient and, hopefully, fun format. I borrowed so much from New York that I feel that I owe the city. Then again, I am feeding the New York City myth by creating a game around it, right? So I guess I'm even with New York!



Study using only two-square lots; in the final version, I opted for a mix of two- and three-square lots
which makes the evolving landscape more unpredictable



Some of the prototype boards; I must have made thirty variants throughout development,
and it's actually relaxing to make a prototype on a Sunday afternoon



My bathtub serving as archive. Can you spot the old (and moldy) copy of Machiavelli in there? A leftover from my teenage years


Final Thoughts

I'm off to Gen Con this year for the first time! I'm just thrilled to be able to attend the Mecca of North American gaming, and I'm pinching myself that all of this is happening to me. My family will be there, too, on the convention floor on the first day. It's not dad's game; it's the family's game. I went to Japan and immersed myself in the culture and brought back a Japanese wife for the "full experience". When our family (re)discovered board gaming, our passion culminated in the production of our own game. No half-measures at our house.

Chénier La Salle

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Mon Jul 20, 2015 6:00 am
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Artist Diary: Bringing Discoveries to Life

Vincent Dutrait
France
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Let's start with a little anecdote: On an evening in summer 2014, I was playing Lewis & Clark with my family. At the end of the game, we ended up talking about the details of the expedition that I was beginning to know quite well since I had illustrated it several times in games or books.

At that time, I realized that in Lewis & Clark, I mostly represented the characters in the context of an epic trek — but we didn't develop the discovery and exploration sides of the expedition.

I was keeping this thought in the back of my mind to talk about it with the Ludonaute team. The next morning, I received a message from them, telling me that Cédrick Chaboussit had just designed a whole new game dedicated to the journals brought back by the explorers, journals describing the tribes, the cartography, and the studies of the animals and plants! That game would become Discoveries.

Dances with Lewis & Clark

It is not that simple to work on a theme and a story several times. Moreover, Lewis & Clark and Discoveries are two very different games but with a similar theme and approach: The players have to manage the expedition members to achieve their goal.

I must admit that the idea of working on it again scared me a little bit at first. The design had been thought out in-depth for Lewis & Clark, and it was necessary to obtain the same result — but in a new light — in order to avoid comments like "It's Lewis & Clark 2", "Lewis & Clark: The Expansion" or "Lewis & Clark: They Are Back".

The Designer, the Publisher, and the Artist

After some very interesting discussions, we decided to focus on the representation of the journals written by the explorers. The next step was to research documents and references to be able to do realistic and credible illustrations. My main researches were on the different tribes, their environment, their lifestyle, the hunters, fishermen, the encountered natural species...




Then I set up a framework for the cards considering some distinctive features. First, the cards are played horizontally, which is an important detail because, physically and visually, it gives a different sensation from Lewis & Clark.

I have thought up two different treatments for the cards. For the Tribes, I have chosen to use ochers and browns to create warmness and to be reminiscent of the colors of the Rocky Mountains, the leather, the wood — everything that is lively.




On the contrary, the Discoveries sides bear a pale and cold background to enhance the visibility of the tracks and the illustrations of the encountered species.




Then I organized the cards so that the mechanism and the indications fit the best amongst the other elements in order to avoid a patchwork effect. Actually, I have drawn the symbols, numbers and pictograms by hand so that we can find the same graphic aspect as in the illustrations. My goal was to create coherent and harmonious cards that remain easily readable.

Wild Wild West

I tried to give the players the feeling that they are really about to do the work of an anthropologist and to study different cultures.

For the Tribes cards, I figured out pretty soon that it wouldn't be that easy to represent the fifty or so tribes who live in the areas explored while giving personality to each card. Some tribes have similar environments (tepees, wooden houses or huts), lifestyles or clothes. For some other tribes, I had a hard time finding descriptions or representations.

To create variety, I have chosen to represent the environment only if I had documentation, to depict a character if I didn't have references, and to include a specific element inly if I had an accurate picture of it.

This work allowed me to create landscapes, characters more or less closely represented, costumes, objects, everyday life scenes, links between nature and men, animals...

For the Discoveries cards, it was easier. What was more important was the mechanism and the tracks that needed to be clear and perfectly readable once the card would lay on the table. In Discoveries, none of the cards are kept in hand, which influences the treatment of the illustrations that are to be seen from a distance.

On the lefthand side are the rivers and the mountains, painted as two small icons so they fit perfectly in the card, and on the righthand side, the illustrations of plants and animals.

For the two kinds of cards, I have tried to give the sensation of a travel diary with illustrations like colored sketches as if they had been taken on the spot, like lively memories. Finally, I have added some writing marks, ink traces and stains to give the ideas of journals that are carried around in a backpack, whenever it is raining or snowing.




On the Board Again

In the very first versions of the game, there wasn't any central board. It was during a test at the 2014 Spiel fair that Sébastien Pauchon (from Gameworks and Space Cowboys) suggested adding a main board in the center of the table instead of just designating a zone to stock the dice.

I liked the idea right off, as did the Ludonaute team, because at this stage the game lacked immersion, a frame, a decor to get really involved in the adventure.

The illustration of the central board shows a panoramic view of the expedition during a break, some men meeting the Native Americans, the others buzzing around the crafts and the horses.

I have rigorously composed the illustration to give it balance and strength. The strong lines all converge to the center of the image to create deepness, and the mountain is like a pyramid on the top of the scene. I aim to enhance the feeling of being a small man at the feet of nature.

The central board facilitates the organization and the structure of the game zone with the cards on each side. I personally think that Discoveries (as with Augustus, which I also illustrated) is a game with a "Wow" effect. There aren't many elements and we start the game with not so much on the table — and then, step by step, the table gets full; we develop the game by spreading the cards. At the end, we get a feeling of achievement, visually reinforced.




The individual boards tend to be not so fun because they're full of indications about the mechanisms of the game. Here, I have tried to use this space to layer various textures and colors and enhance the immersion of the player with paper pieces, a notebook, a little portrait, a colored stone...




Once Upon a Time

The cover illustration has been designed with the same spirit as Lewis & Clark. The idea was to present what the players are about to do in the game, to put into pictures the actions of it.

In the picture, we can see the head of the expedition, the proximity with the Native Americans, the work on the journals and Sacagawea indicating the path. Actually, she is pointing at the part of the decor that we find on the board inside the game. The goal is still to tell a story, with the mountains looking like those from Lewis & Clark and the eagle watching the expedition.

On Lewis & Clark's cover, I put the stress on the explorers, with a cold decor, closed by the steep walls of a defile, to enhance by opposition the warm colors of the characters on the crafts as they go into the unknown.




Here, I have done the opposite, being willing to show the wide spaces and use nature's colors to create a warm atmosphere. I also wanted to change the atmosphere, enhancing the blues and the greens for more softness and the pinks and creams for the peaceful feeling. Thanks to my graphic treatment, the players will be able to make a link between the two game boxes, but we wanted them different nonetheless because Discoveries is a whole new game.




As always, I made the illustrations the traditional way with my pencils and brushes on paper. Sometimes, I did it on separate parts in order to recompose the pictures on the computer.





This Was Just the Beginning

Being able to rework a game thematic is not usual in a career, and I have been really happy over this wonderful opportunity offered by the Ludonaute team. I do thank them for this.

At the same time, it has been a complex challenge. I have just received the first sample of the game (which is particularly well made with an accurate printing) and I was really happy about it.




I have appreciated the opportunity to work again on this universe and develop new ideas that I couldn't do on the first game, I have appreciated working again with Ludonaute and Cédrick Chaboussit, and I appreciate the chance to share my path a little longer with the players in this universe. Enjoy!

Vincent Dutrait

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Sat Jul 18, 2015 10:36 pm
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Designer Diary: Artifacts, Inc., or Rose-Tinted Visions in a One-Star Casino Hotel

Ryan Laukat
United States
Sandy
Utah
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Music is a big deal in my family. My parents both play saxophone and graduated college with music degrees. My mom and dad had us learning piano, singing in choirs, and playing various wind instruments before we knew our times tables, so it wasn't a big surprise when they started their own musical instrument manufacturing company.

I'm the "trumpet guy" at the company. I playtest all the trumpets before they're sold to retail stores, everywhere from Hong Kong to Paris. This means I get sent to music conventions to answer questions and hype the product, struggling against my own introverted self in an effort to seem charismatic and sociable. I was at one such convention near Philadelphia, early in the summer at a dumpy casino-hotel, when I designed Artifacts, Inc. I was all by myself, and there were hours in that freezing showroom with nothing to do, so I did what I always do when I'm bored — scratch game ideas on paper.

Before I had left on the trip, I'd painted this cottage deep in a forest, surrounded by massive trees. I liked it and thought it might deserve a game.

I scribbled a title, a total killer: "Forest Village". It was going to be one of those quick and dirty civilization-building card games — one of my favorite kind of games — and it was going to have dice-placement and drafting (pretty much every game I design has drafting).




But it wasn't really working out. I went through a whole sticky-note pad. The guy in the next booth, a thin, bearded man with a grey ponytail, asked what I kept writing.

"Game ideas", I told him sheepishly.

"Oh yeah? Like, video games?"

"No, like cardboard games."

"Do people still play those?" he asked.

"Yeah. Ever heard of Kickstarter?"

As we talked, something popped into my head. Weeks earlier, I'd been listening to the Stuff You Missed in History Class podcast, specifically an episode about Roy Chapman Andrews. I'd never heard of him before, but I was riveted. Andrews was an adventurer and naturalist from the early 1900s. He led expeditions to Asia in the 1920s searching for remains of early man, and those expeditions were the first in the world to discover dinosaur eggs. They traveled in a caravan of dodge cars through vast deserts, finding all sorts of fossils and having all sorts of adventures.

The game mechanisms I'd been working on suddenly seemed to fit so well. What if players weren't trying to start up a little village in the forest, but organizing expeditions to faraway lands, searching for artifacts and fossils?

I immediately set to work on the prototype when I got home, printing out the second round of cards just in time for our road trip. I glued the cards together as my wife drove our car from Salt Lake City down to Bryce Canyon National Park, an amazing place I'd never seen before, whose red rock formations made it into the game.




We enjoyed playing the game, but I got caught up in other projects and sort of forgot about it. Months later, I found it on the shelf and we decided to set it up for a game night. I was worried I'd forgotten the rules — I hadn't written them down, which is a fairly common occurrence, unfortunately — but I figured it out after some tinkering.

"This is a good one", said my friend. "You should publish it."

And so I did.

I admit the game's theme is more loosely-inspired by Andrews and other early adventurers than it is a close simulation of their expeditions. It came to be through the rose-tinted view of someone who grew up watching adventure movies and playing adventure games, who'd always wanted to illustrate a game set in the 1920s or 1930s.

It took about a month to finish the art. I found an empty room in the basement and set to work, bundling up in the cold and painting on my Wacom tablet. I illustrated three or four cards per day, a blistering pace for me, especially in this style.




How does the game work? Each player owns an artifact-hunting company, and the goal is to become the most famous group of adventurers in the world. Dice represent adventurers in the company, and cards represent company assets, such as headquarters, vehicles, camps and supplies. Players take turns rolling dice and placing them on cards they own to find artifacts in distant lands, and on museums so that they can sell those artifacts. Players buy more asset cards to increase their fame. They can also become more famous by selling the most artifacts to each museum. When someone reaches 20 fame, the game ends, and final fame is counted up. The player with the most fame wins.

One of my favorite parts of the design is the ability to upgrade any asset card you buy. Each card has a level 1 side and a level 2 side. Some cards give bonuses for being adjacent to other cards, and figuring out the best organization of level 1 and level 2 cards is key to winning.

Good luck in your adventures as you search the world for the rare and astounding!

Ryan Laukat
Red Raven Games

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Sat Jul 11, 2015 5:45 pm
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