In Medical Monopoly, each player is a doctor with a hospital to run. If you are successful in having the right supplies (medicines, organs, etc.) on hand and in diagnosing illnesses, your hospital fills up --the first player to fill his hospital with patients wins.
Oddly enough, this victory condition isn't clearly stated in the rules. The game has elements of a Trivia game to it, as you must often recognize an illness from a list of symptoms and remember the appropriate cure (if any). This lowers the replay value somewhat, but the game does have an educational vocation, so this is excusable.