From the back of the game box:
"Solomon's Temple is a game for two players that is fun and exciting. The game will take you from 1 to 1-1/2 hours to complete. The first player to complete the Temple and play Filling of the Holy of Holies is the winner. However, the game is not that simple. While you are trying to build the Temple, the Israelites continue to fall into Sin. Work must be stopped on the Temple in order to lead the Israelites back into the ways of the LORD. To make matters worse, invasion forces from Babylon are pouring down from the north. They want to destroy the entire city of Jerusalem and wreck the Temple! Do you have what it takes to handle the Israelites' rebellion against God, deal with the Babylonian attacks, and still find time to complete the Temple before your opponent does?"
Each of the two players takes the part of the Israelites attempting to complete the Temple while at the same time playing the part of the attacking Babylonians for his opponent. The goal of the game is to be the first player to complete the Temple in its entirety, including all Structure and Furnishing Cards, and finally play the Filling of the Holy of Holies card.
The folding game board loosely depicts the Old City of Jerusalem. Positions for Structure, Priest, Altar, Prophet, other cards, and positions for the Babylonian army pawns are clearly marked.
Each player has a deck of 100 cards from which he draws during the game. Drawing and laying cards are the driving force behind play. Cards are played to build the Temple structure, furnish the Temple, build an Altar, attack your opponent's Temple with Babylonian armies, destroy your opponent's armies, interfere with building using Sin, negating Sin with Burnt Offerings and Scapegoats, and so forth.
A lengthy note from the designer explains much of the history and background of the game design and origin.