Ferdinand Jacobus Domela Nieuwenhuis (31 December 1846 – 18 November 1919) was the Netherlands' first prominent socialist. He was a Lutheran preacher who, after he lost his faith, started a political fight for workers. He was the first socialist in the Dutch parliament.
Nieuwenhuis was born in Amsterdam. His family added the second surname "Domela" in 1859. After his theological studies he became an Evangelical-Lutheran preacher and served in various Dutch towns. During this time he gradually lost his faith and came into contact with the social issues of the time. He stopped preaching in 1879, becoming active in various socialist activities.
In 1881 Nieuwenhuis became the frontman of the Sociaal-Democratische Bond (SDB), a socialist movement which was constructed from various local movements. It fought for universal suffrage and supported socialist workers' initiatives such as strikes. Under Nieuwenhuis' leadership and propaganda the movement became bigger and bigger. As the movement grew, it began to come under attack. In 1887 Nieuwenhuis was sentenced to one year in prison for insulting royalty in an article, although it is not certain whether or not he actually wrote the article. At the conferences of the Second International (IAA) in 1891 and 1893, anarchists, including Nieuwenhuis, presented resolutions that envisioned a call for general conscientious objection and for a general strike in the event of a declaration of war. The majority of the IAA, however, believed that all wars would disappear if capitalism could be removed.
Source: Wikipedia, "Ferdinand Domela Nieuwenhuis", available under the CC-BY-SA License.