I assume that you can use militia/conditiorre to store a food/gold cube as you would the Farm/Bank (except they hold 2). You can add or remove the appropriate cube whenever you wish or need to. Is that correct? It does lessen the utility of the catapult a little.
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No, it is not correct. You can give them cubes whenever you want, but you can't take cubes back from them (try going to the soldiers and saying "ok guys, give me back your rations/paychecks, I was only using you as storage!").