Revolts, Revolutions and Civil Wars
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The struggle of man, is the struggle for power, the struggle for control. Control is granted to leaders and governments, who often become unfavorable with the people under his/her control. It is rare that people will sit idly by when the opprotunity rises to gain control or install a new (more favorable) government.

This list covers as many revolts, revolutions and civil wars I could find. You may add any I missed if it was an historical event. No hypothetical or fictional events here.
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1. Board Game: Roman Civil War [Average Rating:6.88 Overall Rank:8790]
Board Game: Roman Civil War
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Caesar's Roman Civil War 49-45 BCE

Julius Caesar was a sucessful Roman general who fought and defeated the Gaul's in a series of sucessful campaigns in what is now modern day France. During the campaign he was given the position of pro-consul in parts of Transalpine Gaul and Illyria for 5 years. His pro-consul position was extended another 5 years by his (then) close friend Pompey.

In 50 BCE the senate ordered Caesar to disband his armies and return to Rome as his position as pro-consul was finisehd, and he was denied a second term. Caesar refused to coopoerate, and crossed the Rubicon river into Itlay on January 10th 49 BCE, the official starting date of the civil war.

Caesar fought his once close friend (and former son-in-law) in a series of campaigns throughout Europe, ranging from Spain to Greece until Pompey's murder by King Ptolemy XIII of Egypt. Caesar established himself the perpetual dictator of Rome, ending the days of the Republic and beginning the days of the Empire.

The Roman empire was constantly subject to Civil war and was plagued by inner fighting until the Western empires eventual fall. The unclear line of sucession and the fierce political backstabbing of the Roman nobles lent itself well to civil war as generals frequently fought for the position of Emperor.
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2. Board Game: This Accursed Civil War [Average Rating:7.56 Overall Rank:3733]
Board Game: This Accursed Civil War
Ian
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The English Civil Wars 1642-1645 and 1648-1649

King Charles I of protestant England first began to raise concerns when he married the French Catholic princess Henrietta Maria. Concerns grew with Charles appointment of George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham, to the command of English forces in mainland European wars. When petitioned for funds for the wars, parliament agreed to fund them only if Duke Villiers could be recalled if he did not perform adequatley. In 1626, Villier led a disastrous raid on France and was dismissed. So angered was Charles I that he dissolved Parliament.

When Charles I again needed money he summoned another Parliament in 1628 who wrote up the Petition of Rights and demanded the king sign it. He signed it but only to get his funding. Charles I then made it his policy to rule without a parliament.

When rebellion broke out in Scotland, Charles I once again needed money so he summoned another parliament in 1640, much against his will. The newly formed parliamnet quickly passed a series of laws forcing parliamnet to reconvene every three years and removing the kings ability to dissolve parliament.

Charles I then decided to rely on an Irish Catholic army to put down the scottish rebellion, but when parliament had the Irish Earl of Strafford executed for treason and the Irish, fearing the power of the Protestants, invaded England. Rumors arose that they were being supported by Charles I and soon, all hell had broken loose. When the King tried to arrest five parliament members they went into hiding, and parliament began to raise their own army in order to stop the King from seizing complete power.

The war was fought with the Royalists (those loyal soley to the King) against the Parliamentarian forces, each vying for control of the Kingdom.

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3. Board Game: Revolution: The Dutch Revolt 1568-1648 [Average Rating:7.32 Overall Rank:1846]
Board Game: Revolution: The Dutch Revolt 1568-1648
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The Dutch Revolution / Eighty Years War 1568-1648

The main source of the conflict was the Protestant Calvinism of the Netherlands under the control of the Catholic Hapsburg empire and the contentions that arose from the religious differences.

The war began in 1568 when William of Orange, the Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland and Utrecht tried to drive Alva from Brussels. Willaim of Orange received little support and fled leaving his former comrades who were then beheaded by Alva.

The Spanish responded by reconquering much of the area with the southern territories (mostly in France) and reimposing Catholicism. The action prompted William of Orange to unify many of the Northern territories under the Union of Utrecht. The union led to the independence of the provinces from Spain in 1581 forming the United Provinces of the Netherlands.

The Spanish responded with an army to recapture the provinces that same year, drawing the conflict into a long and costly war that would eventually see (coupled with the 30 years war) Spain removed as a dominant world power and the Dutch as a rising power.
 
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4. Board Game: We the People [Average Rating:7.30 Overall Rank:1578]
Board Game: We the People
Ian
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The American Revolution 1775-1783

With the conclusion of the Seven Years War, Great Britain was in control of most of North America, and American Colonists in the 13 Colonies no longer had French or Indian enemies to fight and soon tensions rose between the homeland and the colonists.

With the Battles of Lexington and Concord fighting broke out. Many of the leaders of the colonies were hesitant and attempted to mend relations, but the wrath of King George was soon apparent. The Second Continental Congress reconvened in 1775 and eventually declared their independence from the British Crown with the Declaration of Independence in 1776.

With the intervention of the French and Spanish against the British the war spread throughout the world, with conflicts in not only the 13 Colonies but also in the Gulf Coast, Carribean, India and the Netherlands.

The war was formerly ended on September 3rd 1783
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5. Board Game: The Alamo [Average Rating:6.19 Overall Rank:10219]
Board Game: The Alamo
Ian
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Texan Revolution 1836

Although part of Mexico, white American settlers flooded across the United States Border into the Mexican territory of Texas in the early 19th century some every by the invitation of the Mexican government. But as the white settlers flowed in, and the Mexican government tried to tighten it's control of the territory, the Texans began to grow distasteful of the government.

The first Texas decleration of independence was signed on December 20th 1835 creating the Republic of Texas and four days later the Alamo was captured. The Alamo became a rallying cry for the Texans who finally defeated the Mexican army at the Battle of Jancinto on April 21st 1836 defeating Santa Anna's entire force of 1600 soldiers. The Battle resulted in the official independence of the Republic of Texas.
 
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6. Board Game: A House Divided: War Between the States 1861-65 [Average Rating:7.07 Overall Rank:1314]
Board Game: A House Divided: War Between the States 1861-65
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The American Civil War 1861-1865

It can be debated whether it even qualifies as a civil war, as many perceived it as two nations fighting rather than one nation fighting within itself. It is also known unoficially as The War Between the States or even the War of Northern Agression (the things you hear as a reenactor).

The War was the culmination of tensions between the two seperate Americas, the Federalist Industrial North and the Anti-Federalist Agrarian South.

On December 20th 1860 South Carolina seceded from the United States and was followed by Mississippi (January 9th 1861), Florida (January 10th 1861), Alabama (January 11th 1861), Georgia (January 19th 1861), Louisiana (January 26th 1861) and then Texas (February 1st 1861). The seven seceding States formed the new nation of The Confederate States of America on February 4th 1861.

After the Confederates took possession of many old Union forts and houses of government without incident, Union President Lincoln refused to withdraw Union troops from Fort Sumter which gaurded the entrance to Charleston Harbor in South Carolina. On April 12th 1861 at 4:30 AM Confederate Troops began to shell the fort marking the beginning of the American Civil War (although shells had actually been fired on Union vessels about a month prior).

Four more states seceded at the onset of the war including Virginia (April 17th 1861), Arkansas (May 6th 1861), Tennessee (May 7th 1861) and finally North Carolina (May 20th 1861). The States were all admitted to the CSA, joining in the fight against the Union.

The War largely ended when General Robert E. Lee surrendered the Army of Virginia to Union General Ulysses S. Grant on April 9th 1865 (although the last battle was fought on May 13th 1865 at Palmetto Ranch Texas with a Confederate victory).
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7. Board Game: Reds! The Russian Civil War 1918-1921 [Average Rating:7.27 Overall Rank:3076]
Board Game: Reds! The Russian Civil War 1918-1921
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The Russian Revolution of 1917 and The Russian Civil War of 1918.

With the Russian involvement in the 1st World War and the extensive drain upon Russian resources, the Russian people grew more and more discontent with the Tsarist rule of their country.

The Revolution broke out when the citizens of the City of Petrograd broke out in full protest of the Tsar due to food shortages in the city. The revolution quickly spread and the Tsar Nicholas II quickly abducated in a bloodless move. A new provisional government was put into place and began to plan elections. This became known as the February Revolution.

The October revolution was far more calculated and planned and on November 17th 1917 (October 25th on the then used Julian calendar) Vladimir Lenin of the Bolsheviks led another seemingly bloodless revolt against the provisional government.

Fighting finally broke out in 1918 when the armies of the Reds (the Soviets) fought the Whites (those who opposed the Soviets, mainly royalists)
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8. Board Game: Spanish Civil War Battles: Vol. 2 – Guadalajara & Penarroya [Average Rating:4.96 Overall Rank:18443] [Average Rating:4.96 Unranked]
Board Game: Spanish Civil War Battles: Vol. 2 – Guadalajara & Penarroya
Ian
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The Spanish Civil War June 1936 - April 1939

The revolution was fought with the Spanish Republicans against the emerging Spanish fascists led by General Francisco Franco.

Spain erupted into a deadly war in which foreign intervention from all sides came including aid from Nazi Germany for the Fascists. It is estimated that between 500,000 to 1,000,000 people died in the three years of war, mostly due to mass executions from both sides of the war.

The war became the proving ground for what would become the Second World War.
 
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9. Board Game: Chinese Civil War [Average Rating:5.89 Overall Rank:15928]
Board Game: Chinese Civil War
Ian
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The Chinese Revolution 1926-1949

The conflict was largely fought between the Kuomintang (the nationalist party) and the Communist Party of China. It began in 1926 and raged sporadically with the intervention of Japanese forces and the Second World War.

With the withdrawl of Soviet troops from Manchuria at the end of World War II, the Communist party of China was finally able to seize control and officially created the People's Republic of China.
 
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Board Game: The Korean War
Ian
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The Korean (Civil) War June 25th 1950 - July 27th 1953

The war pitted the Communist North Koreans against the Republic of South Korea. The Communists were quick to take Seoul with Soviet equipment, but the involvement of the UN to reestablish Republic control of South Korea.

The War became a struggle between the republics of the West against the Communists of the East and hostilities were ceased after a perpetual stalemeate on July 27th 1953. No peace treaty has ever been reached and a state of war technically still exists between the two nations and their heavily gaurded DMZ.
 
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11. Board Game: Cuban Revolution [Average Rating:5.87 Unranked]
Board Game: Cuban Revolution
Ian
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The Cuban Revolution July 26th 1953 - January 1st 1959

The revolution was the overthrow of Cuban dictator Fulgencio Batista and the establishment of the government of Fidel Castro.

The revolution began with the assault on the Moncaba Barracks in Santiage de Cuba by 119 rebels, including Fidel and Raul Castro. Many of the rebels were killed but the survivors were sent to prison. They were later moved into exile in Mexico where they gathered exiled Cubans to take Cuba. In November 1956, the rebels returned to Cuba.

In 1958 the full offensive began ending with Batista's fleeing to the Dominican Republic on January 1st 1959. The next day rebles captured Havana and Santiago. On January 8th the revolution ended when Castro himself finally reached Havanna.
 
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12. Board Game: The Vietnam War [Average Rating:2.60 Unranked]
Board Game: The Vietnam War
Ian
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The Vietnamese (Civil) War 1959-1975

Although the starting date of the war is difficult to firmly place, the War itslef is extremely infamous throughout the world.

The war was fought with the Communist Democratic Republic of Vietnam in the north against the Republic of Vietnam in the south. The war escalated into further and further bloodshed as foreign support poured in for both sides.

The United States, South Korea, Thailand, the Phillipines, New Zealand and Australia came in on the side of the south Vietnamese, lending money and troops. Opposed to them was the North Vietnamese Army and the South Vietnamese Guerilla army of the Viet Cong. The USSR also gave military and financial aid as well as diplomatic support to the nation.

The war ended with the withdrawl of all US troops beginning on the 15th of January 1973 and with the withdrawl of US troops, the fronts of the South Vietnamese armies shattered. The war ended with the Fall of the Capital city of South Vietnam Saigon on April 30th 1975.

On July 2nd 1976 North Vietnam joined north and south and formed the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.
 
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13. Board Game: Liberté [Average Rating:7.13 Overall Rank:1000]
Board Game: Liberté
Lea Kissner
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Liberte, egalite, fraternite! The French revolution was the impetus for many other struggles for freedom, and the beginning of the fall of monarchist power.

Unfortunately, this revolution is also a good example of what can happen to good people who get carried away, and how chaos allows the less-idealistic to grab power. Still, the ideals behind this revolution keep popping up and being refined, finally resulting in Western-style democracy.
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15. Board Game: The Jewish War [Average Rating:5.94 Overall Rank:15364]
Board Game: The Jewish War
There are a lot of "third world" publisher wargames on smaller subjects. There's this one, for example, on the 66-73 CE revolt that led to the destruction of the Temple. (I don't know of any games on Bar Kochba.)
 
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16. Board Game: Tupamaro [Average Rating:6.43 Unranked]
Board Game: Tupamaro
This is kind of an abstract one on the conflict in Uruguay between the state and the Tupamaru (different from Tupac Amaru) guerrillas.
 
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17. Board Game: Shining Path: The Struggle for Peru [Average Rating:6.86 Unranked]
Board Game: Shining Path: The Struggle for Peru
A pleasant game on an exceptionally nasty conflict...
 
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18. Board Game: Risorgimento 1859: the Second Italian War of Independence [Average Rating:7.10 Overall Rank:6712]
Board Game: Risorgimento 1859: the Second Italian War of Independence
Roberto Zaghis
Italy
Milano
MI
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TOO MANY GAMES FOR A SINGLE LIFE.. I'll have to consider undeath...
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Second Italian War of Independence 1859

Although not outlawing conspiratorial movements, Cavour was determined to solve the Italian question by international politics rather than by revolution. At a secret conference held at Plombières, Fr., in July 1858 he arranged with Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (now Emperor Napoleon III) for French military intervention in the event of Austrian aggression against Piedmont. Cavour's goal was the complete expulsion of Austrian troops from the peninsula. The price for this help was the cession of Savoy and Nice to France and the outlawing of the Mazzinian movement; wrongly, Napoleon III held Mazzini's followers responsible for an attempt on his life made by the anarchist Felice Orsini in Paris on Jan. 14, 1859. Despite that event, a Franco-Piedmontese alliance was sealed in January 1859. With Napoleon's approval, Victor Emmanuel II made a speech from his throne in which he declared himself ready to hear "il grido di dolore" ("the cry of woe") against Austrian oppression that arose from every part of Italy.

Meanwhile, the Austrian military leadership and its sympathizers at court urged Francis Joseph to declare war on Piedmont. On April 23 an insulting and unacceptable ultimatum demanded the demobilization of Piedmontese troops. Piedmont rejected the ultimatum, and Austria declared war three days later. As Cavour had hoped and planned, France honoured its alliance with Piedmont. In June 1859 the allies won bloody battles at Magenta, Solferino, and San Martino. But, with the Austrian army in retreat, Napoleon III suddenly signed an armistice with the Austrians at Villafranca. This sudden change of policy was prompted partly by the outcry of French public opinion against the loss of life in the Italian campaign and partly by events in Italy itself, where political unification seemed imminent. On April 27 Leopold II of Tuscany had been overthrown by insurgents, and moderate political leaders headed by Baron Bettino Ricasoli had formed a provisional government. In June Parma, Modena, and the Papal Legations (the northern Papal States) had rebelled. Only in the Marche and Umbria were papal troops able to suppress the insurgents. Plebiscites in the liberated states urged unification with Piedmont, but France opposed this outcome.

At Villafranca Napoleon III agreed to accept the cession of Lombardy from Austria, which he passed, in turn, to Piedmont. He also agreed that the legitimate rulers of Modena and Tuscany would be restored to power and permitted to join an Italian confederation. These events marked a serious political defeat for Cavour, who resigned in July 1859 and was replaced by Urbano Rattazzi. England, however, was opposed to the restoration of conservative governments in Modena and Tuscany, and Napoleon III, with his position at home strengthened by the acquisition of Savoy and Nice, reconsidered his position. As a result, Cavour's policy prevailed, and he was returned to office on Jan. 21, 1860. New plebiscites in the duchies and the Papal Legations reconfirmed popular sentiment in favour of union with Piedmont. It was fear of a democratic revolution, the need to weaken Austria, and England's desire to set up a strong Italian state as a counterweight to French influence that induced the European powers to assist the Piedmontese monarchy in obtaining this great success.

During this conflict, the tremendous losses sufferd from both the Austrians (14,000 men killed and wounded and more than 8,000 missing or prisoners) and the French/Piedmontese (15,000 killed and wounded and more than 2,000 missing or prisoners) during the battle of Solferino inspired Henri Dunant to lead the movement to establish the International Red Cross.
 
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19. Board Game: Algeria: The War of Independence 1954-1962 [Average Rating:6.87 Overall Rank:11628]
Board Game: Algeria: The War of Independence 1954-1962
Brian Train, for that matter, has done an exceptional number of games on various civil conflicts; it's been the focus for most of his games.
 
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20. Board Game: The Indian Mutiny [Average Rating:5.51 Overall Rank:17146]
Board Game: The Indian Mutiny
Roberto Zaghis
Italy
Milano
MI
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The Sepoy Rebellion 1857-1858

Under the administration of the Marquess of Dalhousie (Governor-General 1848-56), the last of the independent Indian states, including the wealthy Muslim state of Oudh, were annexed by the British. To consolidate this new territory, some degree of Westernisation was introduced: an Indian railway and road system was developed and the first three Indian universities were founded, creating a tier of higher-caste men educated according to the British system but not fully incorporated into those careers of civil service and army awaiting them. Child marriage and the practice of suttee previously had been abolished and, in 1856, a regulation was passed requiring sepoys to serve overseas thereby losing caste. Both the annexation and consolidation heightened tension between government and population and mutiny was inevitable when the Indian section of the army was allocated cartridges smeared with the fat of cows and pigs, unclean to both Hindu and Muslim elements.

The mutiny lasted thirteen months: from the rising of Meerut on 10 May 1857 to the fall of Gwalior on 20 June 1858.The sepoys were quickly joined by large numbers of civilians supporting the reinstatement of both a Moghul and a Maratha emperor and by landlords, particularly those of Oudh, penalised by the new administration and its policy of exporting raw materials for manufacture in Britain. Historians agree that the mutiny was characterised by violent reprisals on either side but, at least in British historical tradition, the most significant events are the massacres at Meerut, Cawnpore and Lucknow; post-mutiny literature dwelling on the fate of women and children especially.
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21. Board Game: Druid: Boudicca's Rebellion, 61 A.D. [Average Rating:6.82 Overall Rank:8700]
Board Game: Druid: Boudicca's Rebellion, 61 A.D.
Roberto Zaghis
Italy
Milano
MI
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The Iceni Rebellion of 60 A.D.

Boudicca, known in Roman annals as Boadicea, was born into aristocracy around 30 A.D. Little or nothing is known of where she came from; many believe that her name, Boudicca, was not her name at all, but that she may have been called Boudiga -- the Celtic goddess of Victory -- by her followers, which would lead to the Latinized name given as 'Boadicea Victoria' given by Roman historians. Boudicca married into the Iceni royalty in southeastern Britain, believed about 48 A.D., and bore two daughters who had reached adolescence before her husband died of illness in 60 or 61 A.D. After his death came a series of surprising and ruthless attacks on her and her daughters by the Romans, and for this the Iceni tribe became outraged and Boudicca ultimately led a force believed to number over one hundred thousand or more, in a massive rebellion that left a permanent thorn in the side of the Roman Empire.
 
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22. Board Game: Into a Bear Trap: The Battle for Grozny, January 1995 [Average Rating:6.60 Overall Rank:10459]
Board Game: Into a Bear Trap: The Battle for Grozny, January 1995
Roberto Zaghis
Italy
Milano
MI
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The fight for the independence of Chechnya.

 
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23. Board Game: Triumph of Chaos [Average Rating:7.57 Overall Rank:3233]
Board Game: Triumph of Chaos
David Dockter
United States
Minnesota
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Russian Civil War plus civil wars in Ukraine and Finland...
 
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24. Board Game: Wallenstein [Average Rating:7.47 Overall Rank:532]
Board Game: Wallenstein
Alexander Schmalz
Germany
Köln
Nordrhein Westfalen
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The Thirty Years' War was a conflict fought between the years 1618 and 1648, principally in the Central European territory of the Holy Roman Empire, but also involving most of the major continental powers. It occurred for a number of reasons. Although it was from its outset a religious conflict between Protestants and Catholics, the self-preservation of the Habsburg dynasty was also a central motive.

The devastation caused by the war has long been a subject of controversy among historians. Estimates of mass civilian casualties of up to thirty percent of the population of Germany are now treated with caution. It is almost certain that the war caused serious dislocation to the economy of central Europe, but may have done no more than seriously exacerbate changes that had been initiated by other factors.

The immediate result of the war, however, was the enshrinement of a Germany divided among many territories, all of which, despite their continuing membership of the Empire up to its formal dissolution in 1806, had de facto sovereignty. It has been speculated that this weakness was a long-term underlying cause of later German militarism.
[Source: Wikipedia]
 
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25. Board Game: Sessantotto [Average Rating:7.62 Unranked]
Board Game: Sessantotto
Andrea Angiolino
Italy
Rome
European Union
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1968, the Student Revolt

"They fought as people plays
the May cubs, it was normal:
they had the time
even for the jail.
Waiting outside for them there was
another May, another Spring..."
(Fabrizio De André)

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