If I purchase a power of the sultan card on my turn, and a building tile is available on my same turn, can I take the tile. In other words can I purchase the sultan card and use it on my same turn?
I think you can't.
The sultan card can only be used when the market is being replenished. That happens when your turn is already finished.
Also, you can't use it to acquire a building that is already in the market, but only for buildings about to be added to the market.
So you can't use the card to acquire a building on your turn.